If the military and evangelization methods of conquest used in Al-Andalus to achieve genocide and epistemicide were extrapolated to the conquest of indigenous people in the Americas, the conquest of the Americas also created a new racial imaginary and racial hierarchy that transformed the conquest of Moriscos and Marranos
in 16th century Iberian Peninsula.
That said, Yovel's treatment of the literature is sensitive to the difficulties inquisitorial material presents, and he neatly teases out information from inquisitorial records revealing the great variation in attitude among Marranos
were Jews who "'converted to Christianity in Spain between 1391 and 1442," as well as Portuguese Jews who were forcibly converted in 1496-97 (Moses A.
THE TRUST has recently added a new name to the list, and it is, at first blush, a complete shocker: Amelia Bassano Lanier, the dark-skinned, illegitimate daughter of an Elizabethan court musician, a Marrano
Another prominent Marrano
was a Jewish merchant from Venice who was in the London area in 1596-1600, just in that half-decade that The Merchant of Venice was written and performed.
14) See Swetschinski 234 and Bottcher on the role of marranos
in Cartagena de Indias.
31) Elizabethan black existence is also documented in tax returns as Eldred Jones showed long ago, in court papers, as in the case against the Marrano
Jewish physician Hector Nunes in 1588, in which his blackamoor maids are made to testify against him but not in their own person, and in medical records, as in Simon Foreman's casebooks describing his treatment of a black maid named Polonia in 1597.
With respect to greater Bayonne, see for instance, Jean Cavignac, "A Bordeaux et Bayonne: Des 'marchands portugais' aux citoyens francais," in Bernhard Blumenkranz, Juifs en France au XVIIe siecle (Paris, 1994); Anne Zink, "Bayonne arrives et departs au XVIIe siecle," in 1492: l'expulsion des juifs d'Espagne, edited by Roland Goetschel (Paris, 1996); Zosa Szajkowski, "Population Problems of Marranos
and Sephardim in France, from the 16th to the 20th Centuries," Proceedings of the American Academy of Jewish Research 27 (1958): 83-105.
2) See Melzi, "The Flight of the Marranos
as Revealed in Italian Renaissance Plays"; "Law and Lawyers in Some Italian Renaissance Plays"; and "Una commedia rinascimentale di Angelo Alatini, I Trionfi.
For an examination of Protestant Nicodemism in the context of the persecution of other religious minorities who also practiced dissimulation in medieval and early modern Europe, such as Marranos
in Spain and Catholic recusants in England, see Perez Zagorin, Ways of Lying (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1990).
This work completes a trio of books by Netanyahu on Spain's Jews and Marranos
; it follows his Don Isaac Abravanel (1982) and The Marranos
of Spain (1999).
Because she is educated--and, Lewin characterizes, because Columbus himself is sensitive to the need for Conversos and Marranos
who need to take to sea-Esther, as Pedro, becomes the admiral's secretary.