Marshall, James

Marshall, James (Edward)

(1942–92) writer, illustrator; born in San Antonio, Texas. He studied at the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, remained in the city, taught French (1968–70), and became a free-lance illustrator. He is known for his picture books, such as the George and Martha hippopotamus series (1972), and another series beginning with The Stupids Step Out (1974), produced in collaboration with Harry Allard.

Marshall, James (Wilson)

(1810–85) gold finder; born in Hunterdon County, N.J. After some 14 years in Indiana, Illinois, and Kansas Territory, he arrived at Sutter's Fort (present day Sacramento) in 1845. After losing his land and livestock, he was building a sawmill for John Sutter, near present-day Coloma, Calif. (1848), when he discovered gold; this launched the California "gold rush" of 1849. The government refused to recognize the land claims of Sutter and Marshall. Marshall, who made almost nothing from his discovery, spent his final years bitter, resentful, and working as a gardener.