Marwan II


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Marwan II

(mär`wän), 684–750, last of the UmayyadUmayyad
, the first Islamic dynasty (661–750). Their reign witnessed the return to leadership roles of the pre-Islamic Arab elite, and the rejuvenation of tribal loyalties. The Banu Ummaya constituted the higher stratum of the pre-Islamic Meccan elite.
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 caliphs. He served as governor of ArmeniaArmenia
, Armenian Hayastan, officially Republic of Armenia, republic (2005 est. pop. 2,983,000), 11,500 sq mi (29,785 sq km), in the S Caucasus. Armenia is bounded by Turkey on the west, Azerbaijan on the east (the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan is on its
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 before his short-lived rule as caliph (744–50). Marwan reorganized his army, taking Syria by 746. Soon afterward, the Umayyad army was defeated (750) by a combined force of Iraqi, Persian, ShiiteShiites
[Arab., shiat Ali,=the party of Ali], the second largest branch of Islam, Shiites currently account for 10%–15% of all Muslims. Shiite Islam originated as a political movement supporting Ali (cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam) as the
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, and AbbasidAbbasid
or Abbaside
, Arab family descended from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad. The Abbasids held the caliphate from 749 to 1258, but they were recognized neither in Spain nor (after 787) W of Egypt.
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 soldiers. Marwan fled, only to be killed by troops under the first caliph of the subsequent Abbasids.
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References in periodicals archive ?
This northward and eastward shift, continued by Marwan II when he moved his capital to Harran, is particularly significant.
Few years before the Umayyad dynasty crumbled before the onslaught of the Abbasid army in 750 AD, Bin Sayyar had written those words, part of what became one of his most famous poems, to the Caliph Marwan II to warn of the growing discontent of the people and the rise of the opposition's strength.