Mashhad


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Mashhad

(mäsh-häd`), city (1991 pop. 1,759,155), capital of Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran. It is an industrial and trade center and a transportation hub. Manufactures include carpets, textiles, and processed foods. Mashhad is a religious center visited annually by large numbers of Muslim pilgrims. Formerly known as Sanabadh, it is the site of the shrine of the Imam Ali Riza, a Shiite holy person. Imam Riza died (819) in the city after visiting the grave of Caliph Harun ar-RashidHarun ar-Rashid
[Arab.,=Aaron the Upright], c.764–809, 5th and most famous Abbasid caliph (786–809). He succeeded his brother Musa al-Hadi, fourth caliph, a year after the death of his father, Mahdi, the third caliph.
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, who had died there 10 years before; he was buried next to Harun, and the shrine was built over both graves. The city was attacked by the Oghuz Turks (12th cent.) and by the Mongols (13th cent.), but recovered by the 14th cent., when it came to be known as Mashhad [Arab.,="place of martyrdom" or "shrine"]. It prospered under the SafavidsSafavid
, Iranian dynasty (1499–1736), that established Shiite Islam in Iran as an official state religion. The Safavid state provided both the territorial and societal foundations of modern Iran.
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, who were devout Shiite Muslims; Shah Abbas IAbbas I
(Abbas the Great) , 1557–1629, shah of Persia (1587–1628), of the Safavid dynasty. In 1597 he ended the raids of the Uzbeks, and subsequently (1603–23) he conquered extensive territories from the Turks.
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 embellished Mashhad with elaborate buildings. It reached its greatest glory in the 18th cent., when Nadir ShahNadir Shah
or Nader Shah
, 1688–1747, shah of Iran (1736–47), sometimes considered the last of the great Asian conquerors. He was a member of the Afshar tribe.
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 made Mashhad the capital of Persia. The city took on strategic importance in the late 19th cent. because of its proximity to the Russian and Afghan borders. The bombing of the sanctuary of the Imam Riza by the Russians in 1912 caused widespread resentment in the Shiite Muslim world. In 1996 the city became the terminus of a new railroad linking Iran with Turkmenistan and the rest of Central Asia. Near Mashhad are the remains of the former city of Tus, birthplace of the poet FirdausiFirdausi
or Ferdowsi
, c.940–1020, principal Persian poet, author of the Shah Namah [the book of kings], the great Persian epic. His original name was Abul Kasim Mansur; he is thought to have been born of a yeoman family of Khorasan.
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 and the philosopher al-GhazaliGhazali, al-
, 1058–1111, Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic. He was born at Tus in Khorasan, of Persian origin. He is considered the greatest theologian in Islam.
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. Mashhad itself is the seat of a university (founded 1947). The city is also known as Meshed.

Mashhad

, Meshed
a city in NE Iran: an important holy city of Shi'ite Muslims; carpet manufacturing. Pop.: 2 147 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
His research was entitled "Historical and Iconographic Study of the Pilgrimage Town of Mashhad.
Bahrain's Gulf Air is flying to Mashhad daily, a likely nod to its majority Shiite population, and also offering services to Tehran and Shiraz.
With the new service to Mashhad, Emirates SkyCargo will provide more than 150 tonnes of belly-hold capacity between Iran and the UAE each week; further supporting Iran exports of fruits, vegetables, carpets, saffron, nuts, and personal effects, and its imports of meat, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment, machinery and automobiles parts, said the statement.
Shaikh Majid Al Mualla, divisional senior vice-president of commercial operations centre for Emirates, said: "The new service to Mashhad, Iran's second largest city and one of its most economically vibrant centres, will not only enhance trade ties with the UAE, but will also introduce travellers to Emirates' vast route network.
The man deprived of both a hand and foot was one of three armed robbers who entered a bank in Mashhad February 8, 2014, and stole 1.
He demanded the Iranian ambassador to cooperate with the embassy in Tehran and the Consulate General in Mashhad in order to allow them to follow up the medical condition of the patients and to provide all the necessary facilities and care needed by the Saudi citizens in Iran as well as to provide the necessary protection for them.
Flights to Tehran will begin on August 11 and Mashhad on August 10.
Corresponding Author: Toktam Bidel, Department of Physical Education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Correspondence to: Mohsen Champour, Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
1] Department of Urology, Ghaem Educational General Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;
The head of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Center for Genetic Research also pointed to the side-effects of non-specific treatment such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Fereshte Ghaderi, Department of Cardiology, Community Cardiovascular Health Research Center Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad-Iran