Mashhad


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Mashhad

(mäsh-häd`), city (1991 pop. 1,759,155), capital of Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran. It is an industrial and trade center and a transportation hub. Manufactures include carpets, textiles, and processed foods. Mashhad is a religious center visited annually by large numbers of Muslim pilgrims. Formerly known as Sanabadh, it is the site of the shrine of the Imam Ali Riza, a Shiite holy person. Imam Riza died (819) in the city after visiting the grave of Caliph Harun ar-RashidHarun ar-Rashid
[Arab.,=Aaron the Upright], c.764–809, 5th and most famous Abbasid caliph (786–809). He succeeded his brother Musa al-Hadi, fourth caliph, a year after the death of his father, Mahdi, the third caliph.
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, who had died there 10 years before; he was buried next to Harun, and the shrine was built over both graves. The city was attacked by the Oghuz Turks (12th cent.) and by the Mongols (13th cent.), but recovered by the 14th cent., when it came to be known as Mashhad [Arab.,="place of martyrdom" or "shrine"]. It prospered under the SafavidsSafavid
, Iranian dynasty (1499–1736), that established Shiite Islam in Iran as an official state religion. The Safavid state provided both the territorial and societal foundations of modern Iran.
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, who were devout Shiite Muslims; Shah Abbas IAbbas I
(Abbas the Great) , 1557–1629, shah of Persia (1587–1628), of the Safavid dynasty. In 1597 he ended the raids of the Uzbeks, and subsequently (1603–23) he conquered extensive territories from the Turks.
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 embellished Mashhad with elaborate buildings. It reached its greatest glory in the 18th cent., when Nadir ShahNadir Shah
or Nader Shah
, 1688–1747, shah of Iran (1736–47), sometimes considered the last of the great Asian conquerors. He was a member of the Afshar tribe.
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 made Mashhad the capital of Persia. The city took on strategic importance in the late 19th cent. because of its proximity to the Russian and Afghan borders. The bombing of the sanctuary of the Imam Riza by the Russians in 1912 caused widespread resentment in the Shiite Muslim world. In 1996 the city became the terminus of a new railroad linking Iran with Turkmenistan and the rest of Central Asia. Near Mashhad are the remains of the former city of Tus, birthplace of the poet FirdausiFirdausi
or Ferdowsi
, c.940–1020, principal Persian poet, author of the Shah Namah [the book of kings], the great Persian epic. His original name was Abul Kasim Mansur; he is thought to have been born of a yeoman family of Khorasan.
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 and the philosopher al-GhazaliGhazali, al-
, 1058–1111, Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic. He was born at Tus in Khorasan, of Persian origin. He is considered the greatest theologian in Islam.
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. Mashhad itself is the seat of a university (founded 1947). The city is also known as Meshed.

Mashhad

, Meshed
a city in NE Iran: an important holy city of Shi'ite Muslims; carpet manufacturing. Pop.: 2 147 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
By an Iran Times tabulation, which is almost certainly incomplete, the latest Mashhad amputation would be the 59th such amputation carried out in the last two decades since 1997 or a rate of about one amputation every four months.
1) Student Research Committee, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran;
Reza Boostani and blood transfusion center of Mashhad for their kind assistance in sample preparations.
Mashhad, Iran's second largest city, has been chosen to be next year's Capital of Islamic Culture and will see many people travelling there for its religious sites such as Imam Reza's Shrine, as well as it being a cultural and educational hub for many Islamic scholars.
Flights will depart Muscat International Airport at 2pm and arrive at Mashhad International Airport (also known as Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport) at 5.
WY453 of Oman Air, Boeing 737-800 aircraft, which landed today morning at Mashhad International Airport marked the official launching of the daily flights to Mashhad; the 50 th destination by Oman Air.
This is mere exploitation of vulnerable people," said Mujtaba Jalali, a 24-year-old Iranian-born Afghan refugee from Mashhad who has recently fled to Europe.
Since Gulf Air was directed to suspend Iran flights, we had no other option but to book new flights on Emirates or Qatar Airways to bring back the Bahrainis from Mashhad," he added.
Emirates has extended its reach into Iran by linking Dubai with Mashhad, adding a second passenger gateway into the country after Tehran.
Emirates SkyCargo, the freight division of Emirates, is set to increase its cargo capacity to Iran, when the carrier begins its five daily non-stop flights to Mashhad from the beginning of this month.
The accident happened when a passenger train en route from Mashhad to Tehran hit a maintenance train on the line near the town of Varamin.
1) department of Physical Education, Mashhad branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran