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see BantuBantu
, ethnic and linguistic group of Africa, numbering about 120 million. The Bantu inhabit most of the continent S of the Congo River except the extreme southwest. The classification is primarily linguistic, and there are almost a hundred Bantu languages, including Luganda,
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a people living mainly in Southern Rhodesia and also in the neighboring regions of Mozambique. Total population, more than 3.2 million (1970, estimate). The Mashona speak Shona, a language that belongs to the Bantu language family. Most of the Mashona adhere to local traditional beliefs (ancestor worship, worship of natural forces), and the remainder are Christians (Protestants, Catholics). The Mashona achieved a high level of development long before the arrival of the Europeans: they played a leading role in the creation of the Zimbabwe culture and the political unification of the Monomotapa. Their chief occupation is farming (millet, corn, sorghum, legumes), with some cattle breeding. In the late 19th century the lands of the Mashona were seized by the colonialists, and the Mashona have been forced to live on reservations and earn their living by working in the cities and mines.


Ksenofontova, N. A. “Mashona: Traditsionnye sotsial’nye sviazi v obshchine.” In Sotsial’nye struktury dokolonial’noi Afriki. Moscow, 1970. (With bibliography.)
References in periodicals archive ?
1955 The Far Interior: Chronicles of Pioneering in the Matabele and Mashona Countries, 1847-1879.
Calculation of V magnitude for asteroid (1467) Mashona Col.
The formally educated protagonist Sam is a self-described "hard Mashona type," which makes him like the family dog Sango, who is neither an African dog (which is "a little less than" a dog) nor a European dog (which is "more than a dog"), but rather a "suburban African dog in an aspiring middle-class household.
A comparison of the effects of progesterone sponges and ear implants, PGF2a, and their combination on efficacy of estrus synchronization and fertility of Mashona goat does.
Rudy Arriaga, University of Texas San Antonio -- Paul Bissah, Georgia State University -- Mashona Cole, Southern Illinois University -- George Gonzalez, University of Pittsburgh -- Eric Gooden, Florida State University -- Stacy Hawkins, Georgia State University -- Oluwakemi Onwuchedwa, University of Central Florida -- Robert Marley, University of South Florida -- Nicole McCoy, Northern Illinois University -- Shani Robinson, University of North Texas
Court 13: (20) Shahar Peer (Isr) v Shuai Peng (Chn)e Alicia Molik (Aus) v Katarina Srebotnik (Slo)e (15) Sebastien Grosjean (Fra) v Jamie Delgado (Gbr)e Mashona Washington (USA) v (14) Dinara Safina (Rus)
Court 9: Maret Ani (Est) v Laura Granville (USA), Robin vik (Cze) v Florian Mayer (Ger), Marcel Granollers-Pujol (Spa) v Andrei Pavel (Rom), Mashona Washington (USA) v Julia Schruff (Ger), (30) Anna Chakvetadze (Rus) v Elena vesnina (Rus)
The fourth-seeded Russian saved three match points on her way to beating Mashona Washington in a titanic struggle but then revealed her frustration at having to take on the American just two days after having an MRI scan on a long-standing ankle injury.
MARIA Sharapova teetered on the brink of defeat before hitting back to beat Mashona Washington 6-2 5-7 7-5 in the first round of the French Open at Roland Garros.
The 2004 Wimbledon champ, as short as 12-1 for the title, plays Mashona Washington today.
48 Sania Mirza of India 6-3, 1-6, 6-4, and ageless wonder Conchita Martinez of Spain beat Mashona Washington 6-1, 6-4.