Mastodonts


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Mastodonts

 

a large unique group of extinct mammals of the order Proboscidea. The mastodonts lived in the late Paleocene and in the Anthropogenic period. In Europe and Asia they became extinct at the end of the Neocene, and in Africa and North America in the Anthropogenic period. The height of the animals ranged from 1.5 to 3.2 m.

A distinction is made between two groups of mastodonts: mastodonts in which the tooth crowns were composed of many individual conical cusps and mastodonts in which the tooth crowns were composed of transverse crests. Elephants are descended from the second group. The early mastodonts had a pair of tusks—actually enlarged incisors—in the upper and lower jaws. Later mastodonts had only one pair of tusks, in the upper jaw. As the mastodont evolved, its skeleton, including the skull, became increasingly more massive. Mastodonts constituted different ecotypes, inhabiting swamps, forests, and forest-steppes. Their remains in what is the now the USSR have been found in Kazakhstan, Middle Asia, and the Southern European part. Mastodonts are important for the stratigraphy of the continental deposits of the Cenozoic era.

REFERENCE

Osnovy paleontologii: Mlekopitaiushchie. Moscow, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
data) mastodonts from Indiana, and contrast with the larger Dollens (Richards et al.
Like many mastodonts recovered from the region, the Shafer specimen died over 10,000 ybp and was deposited in shallow aquatic sediments of lentic origin.
The majority of fossils, except a partial alligator skeleton (ET 5352) and Peterson's original mastodont skeleton (present location unknown), were disarticulated finds.
Mammut is often reconstructed as a browser in open spruce-dominated forests; however, stomach contents of a mastodont from Licking County, Ohio consisted largely of nonconiferous flora (Lepper et al.
The radiocarbon dates for extinct Pleistocene vertebrates from Michigan, some very recent and first reported in this paper, add further support to the hypothesis that mastodonts and mammoths became extinct at the end of the late-glacial.
We can now confirm long-held suspicions that Paleo-Indians exploited mastodonts in a similar way.
This date is very consistent with other reliable dates on Michigan mastodonts and mammoths (Agenbroad 1984; Holman et al.
Both Mason and Quimby believed that Paleoindians of the entire Great Lakes Region hunted mastodonts.
Skeels (1962) updated MacAlpin (1940) and reported records of both mastodonts and mammoths from letters, news articles, and museum entries.
The mastodonts and mammoths that lived in Michigan played a role similar to that of the elephants and rhinos in modem Africa.
Remarks: this is very different type of Michigan site in that the matrix surrounding the mastodont was a sandy clay that could easily be washed through the screens for microvertebrate fossils, three of which were found (white sucker,?
Saunders (1977) used terms to indicate specific lophs of mastodont teeth: Protoloph, Metaloph, Tritoloph, Tetartoloph, and Pentaloph indicate the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth lophs respectively.