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two Indonesian states on Java, one existing from the eighth to the 11th century and the other from the 16th to the 18th century.

The first Mataram state, lasting from about 725 to 1042, was formed out of an appanage of the Kalinga state, which had disintegrated. It was an early feudal state with strong elements of Oriental despotism. The ruler was the secular and spiritual head of the state. The dynasties were Hindu; a Buddhist dynasty ruled the state only in the eighth and ninth centuries. The socioeconomic structure was based on the commune. Mataram maintained relations with other parts of the archipelago and with Cambodia, India, and China. In its efforts to expand its territory on Java and gain hegemony over the Malay Archipelago, Mataram clashed with the Sumatran state of Srivajaya at the turn of the 11th century. Airlangga, who came to the throne in 1019, attempted to unite all Java into a single state. Mataram and Srivajaya delineated their spheres of influence: Mataram’s rule was recognized in the central and eastern parts of the archipelago, and Srivajaya’s in the western part. In 1042, Airlangga divided Mataram into two states, Kediri and Djanggala. Many temples were built at the time of the first Mataram state, including Borobudur and Prambanan.

The second Mataram state (1575-1755) arose after a long period of feudal strife which began with the disintegration of Majapahit and the weakening of the coastal city states through Portuguese incursions. Mataram was a developed feudal state and the first large Javanese state ruled by a Muslim dynasty. The centralizing policy of its rulers Senapati (ruled 1575-1601) and Agung (ruled 1613-45) extended the state’s power over central Java as far as Bantam and eastern Java and brought about the destruction of the last Hindu states on Java. In 1641, Agung adopted the title of sultan. He fought unsuccessfully against the Dutch East India Company, besieging Batavia in 1619 and in 1628-29. In the 1670’s the Dutch intervened in the dynastic conflicts, helped the sultanate in its struggle against an uprising led by Trunodjoyo, and placed on the throne their protege, who ceded to the company several important regions of Mataram. The same period also saw a new anti-Dutch uprising led by Surapati, followed by three Javanese wars of succession (1703-05, 1719-23, 1749-55), in which the Dutch actively intervened. As a result Mataram lost the greater part of its possessions and became a vassal of the company. In 1755 it was divided into the states of Jogjakarta and Surakarta, both dependent on the Dutch.


References in periodicals archive ?
Briefing media in New Delhi this afternoon, Director General of AIR Fayyaz Shehryar, on Thursday, said, "AIR Signature Tune, Vande Mataram and other musical instruments will be played while AIR tableau move on at Rajpath.
The solemn ceremony was marked by patriotic numbers, include such moving songs like"Aye Mere Watanke Logon"and"Vande Mataram, played by the army band that wafted across the"temple of the martyrs".
Archery or jemparingan which is the archery art of the ancient tradition of Mataram Kingdom, is one of the attractions offered in Balkondes Omah Guyub Wringin Putih.
Samajwadi Party MLA Abu Azmi said that singing 'Vande Mataram' could not be a condition to show one's patriotism and objected after BJP MLA Anil Gote said that martyr Abdul Hamid during the war with Pakistan destroyed enemy tanks and said 'Vande Mataram.
Shukla said that the manager told them that they cannot sing Jana Gana Mana and Vande Mataram as it violated the tenets of Islam.
Some Muslim sects have been feeling that Vande Mataram and by extension Bharat Mata ki Jai means bowing to Goddess mother, something which is opposed to their understanding of Islam.
Earthquakes with only moderate shaking occurred south of the Mataram (Central Java) coast in 1840, 1859 and 1921, and did produce observable tsunamis there, though more substantial earthquakes in 1867 and 1875 apparently did not.
AaAaAeAeAaAe airport on Mataram, the capital of West Nusatenggara province in nearby Lombok Island, was also closed.
It was also, often nolens volens, dragged into conflicts with indigenous rulers, which involved extensive land campaigns against, for instance, the Mataram realm.
The next projects are aircraft fuel filling depots (DPPU) in three locations of international airports--Kualanamu airport of Medan in North Sumatra, Hassanuddin airport of Makassar, South Sulawesi and Lombok International Airport of Mataram, West Nusatenggara.
The flute recital of Vande Mataram specially touched one and all.
The events in Bok, I argue, exemplified broader dispute resolution patterns in Mataram and West Lombok, where adat (traditional rules and social processes) are integral to the eventual resolution of conflict.