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The meeting of individuals for sexual reproduction.



the coupling of agricultural animals, a means of natural insemination of dams by sires. Mating takes place when the female is in heat. Animals are allowed to mate for the first time when they reach sexual maturity: stallions and mares at the age of three years, bulls and cows at 15 to 18 months, rams and ewes at 12 to 18 months, and boars and sows at ten to 12 months. Animals of early-maturing breeds are mated somewhat earlier than those of late-maturing breeds.

There are several types of mating. Voluntary coupling takes place in herds in which the males and females are kept together at pasture or in pens. Selective mating takes place when males kept separately from the females are paired with certain designated females. This type of mating makes possible selection, increased breeding use of the sire, and the obtaining of offspring during specific periods of the year. In animal breeding, natural mating is replaced by artificial insemination, a more efficient method of insemination.

References in periodicals archive ?
It favors mechanisms that allow males to increase number of sperm per ejaculate (Birkhead and Mller, 1998) or strategies that minimize risk of sperm competition, such as direct or indirect mate guarding (Voss, 1979; Dixson and Anderson, 2002).
Forced extra-pair copulation and mate guarding in the White-cheeked Pintail: timing and trade-offs in an asynchronously breeding duck.
Hobson and Sealy (1989) found that male yellow warblers (Dedroica petechia) perched higher than females throughout the nesting cycle and they also suggested multiple benefits to this behavior in addition to a possible mate guarding function.
To determine if and to what extent mate guarding took place, the behavior of individual pairs was sampled during two, 1-h observation periods during the females' fertile (nest building and egg laying) or nonfertile (incubation) period.
Part-time mate guarding affects paternity in male Reed Buntings (Emberiza schoeniclus).
We ascertained social pairs by mate guarding and the male's participation in incubation or feeding of young.
Explicit experimental evidence for the role of mate guarding in minimizing loss of paternity in the Seychelles Warbler.
Trade-off between mate guarding and mate attraction in the polygynous Great Reed Warbler.
Other data on sperm release patterns in this species, along with no evidence of mate guarding, provide support for sperm mixing, since the first and second males to mate with a female were found to transfer equal numbers of sperm (Bukowski & Aviles, unpub.
I posit the territorial male was inspecting the female as part of a mate guarding strategy, perhaps investigating for evidence of extra-pair copulations.
Data on mate guarding are difficult to obtain for Song Sparrows as they spend much of their time together on the ground in dense vegetation (JRF, pers.
Mate guarding is classified as excessive or unwarranted jealous or protective behaviour towards a spouse or mate.