a Czech cultural and educational society. Founded in 1831 by F. Palacký as part of the Czech National Museum in Prague. Membership dues and donations were used to publish works of Czech literature (including P. I. Šafařík and J. Jungman), translations of works of world literature, and the journal Časopis Českého Muzea (publication began in 1831; from 1855 to 1921 it appeared under the title Časopis Muzea Královstvi Českého; after 1924, Časopis Národního Muzea).
Matice Česká united Czech patriots and, until the 1880’s, exercised a significant influence on Czech scientific and cultural life. After World War II (1939–45) the functions of Matice Ceska were carried out by the Society of Friends of the National Museum in Prague. In 1950 the publishing activities of Matice Ceska were transferred to the National Museum.