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Matupit has a much longer history of engagement with a global cash economy, and consequently such tendencies perhaps appear less dramatically than they do in areas such as Telefolmin.
This view of Matupit kinship and clans of 1960 has similarities with Wagner's (1974:106) description of the Daribi model, which also stresses the dangers of describing,
However, there are limits to the flexibility of Matupit kinship.
The kind of genealogical manipulation, that is designed to attempt to create discrete sub-divided clans of the kind that Jorgenson describes as a recent development at Telefolmin, has a longer history at Matupit.
What the ethnographer of Telefolmin is able to describe as a sudden change, has at Matupit occurred over generations, but nonetheless, there is a significant tendency at work in both cases-namely to privilege, 'new kinds of exclusionary claim based on a reification of privileged genealogical ties.
Most of the customary land on which gardening and cash cropping took place around Matupit was destroyed in 1994, so there is no longer the same opportunity to see the extent to which interests other than those endowed by kakalei were tolerated.
This is as true for 1970s Highlands New Guinea (or indeed 1770s Manchester) as it is for 21st century Matupit.
I conducted fieldwork at Matupit between February 2002 and February 2004, with an additional month's fieldwork on a return visit from December 2004 to January 2005.