Maurice Merleau-Ponty


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Merleau-Ponty, Maurice

 

Born Mar. 14, 1908, in Rochefort-sur-Mer; died May 4, 1961, in Paris. French idealist philosopher of the phenomenological school; some of MerleauPonty’s views had much in common with existentialism.

Merleau-Ponty studied philosophy at the Ecole Normale Superieure, where he worked closely with J.-P. Sartre (breaking with him in 1953) and with J. Hippolyte. He was also influenced by Gestalt psychology. In 1945, Merleau-Ponty became a professor at the University of Lyon and later at the Sorbonne (1949) and at the College de France (1952).

While working on the unpublished writings of E. Husserl, the founder of phenomenology, Merleau-Ponty arrived at a broader interpretation of intentionality as a characteristic not only of consciousness but of man’s whole relation to the world. Accordingly, he introduced the concept of preconscious (bodily) existence, which is sentient, because it is open to the world and not shut up in itself as a thing is. All of man’s being is the realization and revelation of his existence, which is accomplished by the infinite dialogue of the subject with the world. The subject and the world are the two poles of a single phenomenal field, in which the subject is always situationally bound and therefore can never be completely revealed and known.

In some of his works, Merleau-Ponty was critical of communism and attacked dialectical materialism.

WORKS

Phénoménologie de la perception. Paris, 1945.
Humanisme et terreur: Essai sur le problème communiste. Paris, 1947.
Sens et nonsens. Paris, 1948.
Les Aventures de la dialectique, 16th ed. Paris, 1955.
Signes. Paris, 1960.
Eloge de la philosophic et autres essais. Paris, 1965.
La Structure du comportement, 6th ed. Paris, 1967.
La Prose du monde. Paris, 1969.
Le Visible et /’invisible. Paris, 1971.

REFERENCES

Korolev, E. E. “Zlokliucheniia antimarksizma.” Voprosy filosofii, no. 4, 1956.
Kuznetsov, V. N. Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia 20 v. Moscow, 1970. Pages 285–94.
De Waelhens, P. A. Une Philosophic de rambigui’te, 3rd ed. Paris, 1968.
Les Temps modernes, 1961, vol. 17, nos. 184–85.
Kwant, R. C. The Phenomenological Philosophy of Merleau-Ponty. Pittsburgh, 1963.
Kwant, R. C. From Phenomenology to Metaphysics. Pittsburgh, 1966.
Langan, T. Merleau-Ponty !$• Critique of Reason. New Haven-London, 1966.

A. A. PUZYREI

References in periodicals archive ?
Through the theories of Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Gilles Deleuze, Vaughan compares the films of Jean-Luc Godard, which assess the audio visual illusion of empirical observation or objectivity, with the films of Alain Resnais, in which the sound-image creates inventive depictions of individual experience or subjectivity.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty (14 March 1908-3 May 1961) was a French phenomenological philosopher, strongly influenced by Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger.
Danto's teacher during his studies in Paris from 1949 to 1950, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, famously believed in a fruitful exchange between philosophy and painting, especially that of Paul Cezanne.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty defines phenomenology, in which he tries to reduce to the object itself to grasp its nature as follows: "Phenomenology is a philosophy of unveiling the intersubjective, entangled relations between space and man and trying to embrace an accidental incident as it is.
The lens is discussed historically in the introduction suggesting the key phenomenologist theorists he utilizes: Gilles Deleuze, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty (6).
The difference of image and prototype was gracefully defined by Maurice Merleau-Ponty, stating that "image is not a copy, optical illusion or another thing": "The animals painted on the walls of Lascaux are not there in the same way as the fissures and limestone formations.
Indeed the subtitle of the book, taken from Carson McCullers' short story of the same name, creates a picture of the world in which meaning is sensed as much as rationalized, a way of thinking theorized by Jacobus through the work of Derrida, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Thomas Nagel and Jean-Luc Nancy, as well as John Clare, John Constable, John Ruskin, Rainer Maria Rilke, W.
Looking down from 10, 20, 30,000 feet I thought about something from the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty which I needed to look up once I got home.
Here Marratto addresses the relationship between conscious experience and the body by taking up the work of the phenomenologist Maurice Merleau-Ponty.
Drawing on the thought of the French phenomenologist, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, wounds are shown to be imprinted in the very fabric of Southern life, as they are impregnated in the fleshly tissue that chiasmatically intertwines the perceiver with the perceived world.
8) Maurice Merleau-Ponty, "The Intertwining--The Chiasm," in The Continental Aesthetics Reader, ed.
Both books ground themselves in the writings of Maurice Merleau-Ponty on the phenomenology of perception.