The long dactylus of the third maxilliped
that overreaches the tip of the propodus and the subtriangular telson wider than the sixth abdominal somite are unique features that clearly support that P.
Presence of setae were found in the maxillipeds
(first, second and third), mandible, maxillule, and maxilla of the two species (Figs.
The initial number of setae 3, 5, 5 in the exopods of the third maxilliped
and pereopods and their gradual increase are also similar to the reported species.
3 = fast, active movement of legs, righting time of 5-40 s in water bath or on the sorting table, fast movement of maxillipeds
, chelae grab any object strongly and for long periods ([greater than or equal to] 2 min), threat display.
Maxilla and first maxilliped
with dense covering of setae-like structure formed by bacterial colony on ventral surfaces of scaphognathite and caridean lobe, respectively (Fig.
rectum by the presence of setae and spines in the endopods of the maxillae and maxillipeds
These larvae appeared to have been hatched prematurely, and their morphology differed from that expected for a first-stage zoea form in that maxillipeds
were devoid of natatory setae (see Morphology section above).
The phyllosomas then hauled up the tentacles of the jellyfish using the first, second, and third pereiopods, through the second maxillipeds
and the mouth-part, to finally feed on it.
Mouth closure If closed, attempt to 3rd maxillipeds
retract open (extend) the 3rd strongly to cover the maxillipeds
with a sharp smaller mouth parts.
For example, studies have revealed that posterior shifts in the expression boundary of the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Uhx) led to the evolution of maxillipeds
, which have morphologically and functionally specialized anterior thoracic appendages for feeding (Averof and Patel, 1997; Abzhanov and Kaufman, 1999, 2000).
The family Sicyoniidae is morphologically peculiar in having the following features: (1) prosartema absent, (2) exopods absent from second and third maxillipeds
, (3) pleopods with one ramus only, and (4) pleurobranchiae absent from fourth to sixth thoracic somites.
2, E and F): Elongate with distinct waist; anteroventral median ocellus; carapace developed; rudimentary maxillae and maxillipeds
bearing numerous short setae.