Robert Maxwell

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Maxwell, Robert

(Ian Robert Maxwell), 1923–91, British business executive, b. Czechoslovakia as Jan Ludwik Hoch. He grew up in a tight-knit Jewish community. After fleeing the Nazis in 1939, Maxwell fought with the British during World War II. In 1951, he purchased Pergamon Press, a publisher of textbooks and scientific journals. The company's success helped him win election to Parliament in 1964 as a Labour member. A 1969 financial scandal cost Maxwell control over Pergamon and his political career, but he went heavily into debt and repurchased Pergamon in 1974. In the 1980s, he borrowed additional funds to create a diversified media empire that came to include the Mirror Newspaper Group, the U.S. book publishing company Macmillan, the Official Airline Guides, Berlitz, and the New York Daily News.

After Maxwell drowned mysteriously while cruising off the Canary Islands, investigators discovered that he had misappropriated hundreds of millions of dollars from his companies and their pension plans to finance his corporate expansion. Maxwell's companies were forced to file for bankruptcy protection in Great Britain and the United States in 1992. In 1995 Maxwell's sons Kevin and Ian and two former directors went on trial in one of Britain's largest fraud cases. The charges included misusing Maxwell group pension fund stocks to assist a faltering Maxwell company and risking pension fund shares to secure a loan for another Maxwell company. They were acquitted in 1996.


See T. Bower, Maxwell (1992); R. Greenslade, Maxwell (1992); and E. Maxwell (his widow), A Mind of My Own (1994).

References in periodicals archive ?
Logan Hudson, Tanis Maxwell, Robert Ericlcson, South Central Public Health District.
Safeway Growler Store, Safeway Inc; Robert Lynn Edwards, Gregg Alan Maxwell, Robert A.
It was this that led the late Roger Dickens along with Peter Carter, Bob Gilbert, Ian Hunter, John James, David Maxwell, Robert Moore, Richard Samuda, Ian Wade and Peter Williams to formally establish City 2000 on the 27th April 1990 after more than a year of debate and consultation across the city.
Unlike Maxwell, Robert Sawyer in Victorian Appropriations of Shakespeare rests content with a traditional and uncomplicated picture of Browning's turn from subjective to objective poetry, read here as a turn from Shelley to Shakespeare (Madison, New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ.
Front row: Mark Bonner, Willie Boland, Andy Legg, Clive Goodyear Physiotherapist, Lennie Lawrence Manager, Ian Butterworth Assistant Manager, George Wood Goalkeeping Coach, Graham Kavanagh, Layton Maxwell, Robert Earnshaw.
NEW YORK A Mitchell Maxwell & Victoria Maxwell, Robert Eckert, James C.
Brad Sugars has spoken on stage with personalities such as Tom Hopkins, Brian Tracy, John Maxwell, Robert Kiyosaki and Allen Pease, written books with people like Anthony Robbins, Jim Rohn, and Mark Victor Hansen, appeared on countless TV and radio programs and in literally hundreds of print articles around the globe.
Maxwell, Robert, The Art of Medieval Urbanism: Parthenay in Romanesque Aquitaine, University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press, 2007; cloth; pp.
Bells Are Ringing," produced by Mitchell Maxwell, Mark Balsam, Victoria Maxwell, Robert Barandes, Mark Goldberg, Anthony R.
NEW YORK A Mitchell Maxwell, Mark Balsam, Victoria Maxwell, Robert Barandes, Mark Goldberg, Anthony R.
FLEETWOOD: Maxwell, Roberts, Andrew, McLaughlin, Jordan, Hughes, Sarcevic, Evans, Morris (Schumacher, 86), Proctor, Hughes (Hornby-Forbes, 78) Substitutes not used: Lucas (goalkeeper), Dobbie, Hitchcock, Davies, Haughton .