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a. the sense of an expression; its connotation
b. the reference of an expression; its denotation. In recent philosophical writings meaning can be used in both the above senses



the content linked with some expression (word, proposition, sign) of a certain language.

The meaning of linguistic expressions is studied in linguistics, logic, and semiotics. In the science of language, meaning is understood as the sense content of a word. In logic and semiotics the meaning (in Anglo-American philosophy, the reference) of a linguistic expression is understood as that object or class of objects that are designated (named) by the expression (the referential, or extensional, meaning), while the.sense (in Anglo-American philosophy, the meaning) of the expression (sense, or intentional, meaning) implies its thought content—that is, that information contained in the expression by means of which the ascription of the expression to some object (objects) occurs. For example, the referential meanings of the expressions “evening star” and “morning star” refer to one and the same object—the planet Venus—but their thought contents, or sense meanings, are different. Questions of the criteria for equivalence of meanings (senses)—that is, the criteria of synonomy of linguistic expressions—is one of the problems studied by logical semantics.