artificial heart

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artificial heart:

see heart, artificialheart, artificial,
external or surgically implanted mechanical device designed to replace a patient's diseased heart. The first one used on a human being, the Jarvik-7, was implanted (1982) in Barney Clark, who lived for 112 days; another patient, William Schroeder, lived 620
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.

heart, artificial,

external or surgically implanted mechanical device designed to replace a patient's diseased heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. The first one used on a human being, the Jarvik-7, was implanted (1982) in Barney Clark, who lived for 112 days; another patient, William Schroeder, lived 620 days. Two major drawbacks of the Jarvik-7 were the danger of strokestroke,
destruction of brain tissue as a result of intracerebral hemorrhage or infarction caused by thrombosis (clotting) or embolus (obstruction in a blood vessel caused by clotted blood or other foreign matter circulating in the bloodstream); formerly called apoplexy.
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 from clots formed in the artificial heart and the need for the patient to be hooked to the external air compressor that powered the pump. By 1989 such devices had largely become a bridge to human heart transplants (see transplantation, medicaltransplantation, medical,
surgical procedure by which a tissue or organ is removed and replaced by a corresponding part, usually from another part of the body or from another individual.
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).

Beginning 2001, however, a second type of artificial heart, the AbioCor, was implanted in a number of patients. Unlike the Jarvik-7, the AbioCor is powered by electrical energy that is transmitted from a battery across the skin to an internal coil and backup battery. Because an opening in the skin is not needed to allow passage for tubes or wires, the risk of infection is greatly reduced. In addition, the external battery pack is designed to worn on a belt or suspenders, enabling the patient to be mobile. On average, the patients who received the heart from 2001 to 2004 and survived the operation lived for five months; the longest lived not quite 17 months. In 2006 the AbioCor was approved for use in patients who do not qualify for a heart transplant if their life expectancy as a result of heart failure is less than month; the device is also approved as a temporary measure for patients awaiting a transplant. A number of other artificial hearts have since been implanted temporarily or experimentally in patients, with varying degrees of success.

A related device, the ventricular assist device (VAD), or "artificial ventricle," is an internally implanted pump designed to aid a person with a failing left ventricle; unlike an artificial heart, it does not require removal of the patient's heart. A version for temporary use was developed in 1964. In 1991 doctors implanted the first portable VAD; it was powered by a battery pack. Its pump used a special interior lining to promote the growth of a surface similar to that which lines the blood vessels, reducing the risk of the formation of blood clots, which can cause stroke.

artificial heart

[¦ärd·ə¦fish·əl ′härt]
(medicine)
An endoprosthetic device used to replace or assist the heart.
References in periodicals archive ?
One other notable finding was that the risks faced by women with mechanical heart valves far exceeded the risk seen in women with tissue valves, and in women with other forms of mechanical heart disease but no valve prostheses.
IN A NUTSHELL Traditional mechanical hearts are long-lasting, but they cause blood clots, requiring patients to take high doses of anticoagulant Warfarin.
The artificial mechanical heart implant program at Jewish Hospital in Louisville, KY is featured in the artificial organ segment.
CASE FACTS: Judith Enlow died due to a malfunction of a mechanical heart valve which had been surgically implanted in her immediately prior to her death.
These factors can be illustrated by examining what is known about biofilms on three types of indwelling medical devices: central venous catheters, mechanical heart valves, and urinary (Foley) catheters.
The INRange Monitored Heart Valve offers patients the proven reliability of the Carbomedics mechanical heart valve, along with patient in-home self-testing of their INR values, transtelephonic and real-time reporting of anti-coagulation therapy.
The contract will be gradual delivery of 135 pieces of implant kits for long-term mechanical heart support pump duration of 3 years.
The mechanical heart keeping her alive can only function for up to 100 days and medics are facing a race against time to find her a heart.
In a retrospective study of 71 pregnancies between 1987 and 2000 in 52 women who had mechanical heart valves, poor outcome was significantly related to warfarin dose.
A CRITICALLY ill man has become the third patient to have a mechanical heart installed, it was revealed yesterday.
NYSE:STJ), a global medical device company, today announced that the company will celebrate the treatment of more than 2 million patients with its mechanical heart valve technology.
Contract notice: Tender that will provide mechanical heart valves to chlc, epe for the year 2016.

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