Mediastinitis


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Related to Mediastinitis: Fibrosing Mediastinitis

mediastinitis

[‚mē·dē‚as·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the mediastinum.

Mediastinitis

 

inflammation of the mediastinum, arising as a result of injury (most often, to the esophagus) or disease of the organs of the thoracic cavity, neck, and oral cavity.

Mediastinitis may be acute or chronic. The acute form is manifested by elevated temperature, chills, chest pains, difficulty in swallowing and breathing, and cough. The principal indications of chronic mediastinitis are symptoms of venous, tracheal, and esophageal compression. The treatment of mediastinitis is usually surgical. Preventive measures include timely diagnosis and effective treatment of the diseases that lead to the condition.

References in periodicals archive ?
He added: "The pathologist's report says that he died as a result of multiple organ failure brought on by mediastinitis.
5% incidence of sternal infection, dehiscence or mediastinitis.
Mediastinitis after cardiovascular operations: a case-control study of risk factors.
Improved quality rating--Stroke and mediastinitis are the two most costly complications after CABG.
Yet, activity limitations are often employed following median sternotomy with the clinical assumption that this will reduce risk of sternal instability and mediastinitis.
Cigna defines avoidable hospital conditions as: "objects left inside a patient during surgery; air embolism, or sudden artery blockage from air bubbles introduced during surgery; use of the wrong blood type during transfusions; infections from urinary catheters; pressure ulcers, also known as bed sores; infections from central vein catheters; mediastinitis, an often fatal inflammation in lung tissue; and hospital-acquired injuries, such as fractures, dislocations, and bums.
Fatal massive hemorrhage caused by nasogastric tube misplacement in a patient with mediastinitis.
In October 2008, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) began denying or reducing payment for specific healthcare-associated infections(HAIs): catheter-associated urinary-tract infections, mediastinitis following coronary-artery bypass grafting, and vascular catheter-associated bloodstream infections.
2) Grade on Sternal Instability Scale 3 (3) (0 to 3), median (IQR) Risks to wound healing, n (%) Obesity 7 (78) Diabetes 3 (33) Alpha adrenergic agents 3 (33) Smoker 1 (11) Known osteoporosis 2 (22) Renal failure 1 (11) Post menopausal 1 (11) Problems prior to surgery, n (%) Back pain 6 (67) Amputation 1 (11) Nil 3 (33) Problems since surgery, n (%) Dry cough 1 (11) Fall 2 (22) Poor compliance with sternal 3 (33) precautions Mediastinitis 1 (11) Problems with wires 2 (22) Chest infection 2 (22) Syncopal episodes 1 (11) Nil 1 (11) Table 2: Mean (SD) of interventions, mean (SD) difference within interventions, and mean (95% CI) difference between interventions for all outcomes.
In accordance with the law, CMS has targeted specific hospital-acquired conditions: objects left in surgery, air embolisms, blood incompatibility, catheter induced urinary infections, bedsores, vascular catheter induced infections, mediastinitis after coronary bypass, and falls occurring in a hospital (http//:cms.
Once a perforation occurs, saliva, retained gastric contents, bile, and acid enter the mediastinum, resulting in mediastinitis.