Medical Industry

Medical Industry


the industry that manufactures medicines and medical equipment for public health treatment and prevention institutions and for the needs of the public.

The medical industry in the USSR has three branches; the chemical and pharmaceuticals industry, the medical instruments industry, and the medical glass, porcelain, and plastic products industry. The chemical and pharmaceuticals industry includes enterprises manufacturing synthetic drugs, medications from plant materials, vitamins, endocrine preparations from animal materials, antibiotics, blood substitutes, bacterial preparations, bandaging materials, and other agents used in therapeutic and preventive medicine. The medical instruments industry includes enterprises manufacturing medical instruments and equipment. The medical glass, porcelain, and plastic products industry manufactures pharmaceutical glassware and earthenware, dentures, and dental and prosthetic materials. Enterprises of certain industrial ministries also produce small amounts of medical preparations and some medical equipment.

In Russia the first organizations specializing in the production of drugs and medical instruments were established in the 17th and 18th centuries. However, an industry for the manufacture of drugs and medical equipment was never created. The demand for these products was satisfied principally by imports.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the medical industry of the USSR developed rapidly as an independent branch of industry. During the early five-year plans small, inadequately equipped plants and workshops for the manufacture of medical instruments were replaced by specialized chemical and pharmaceuticals and medical instrument plants and enterprises producing medical items made of glass and porcelain. In addition, the scientific base of the industry was broadened significantly.

These improvements helped provide the public with the necessary drugs and medical technology. For example, during the second five-year plan (1933-37) a chemical and pharmaceuticals plant built in the settlement of Staraia Kupavna (Moscow Oblast) to manufacture the antimalarial preparation quinacrine substantially facilitated the elimination of malaria as a mass disease.

During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) plants were built quickly in the Urals and Siberia. Some of these were begun with the human and material resources of enterprises evacuated from front-line areas. The medical industry continued to develop at a rapid pace after the war, owing to the modernization and reequipping of operating plants and the construction of new ones. The technical level of production rose substantially. Scientific advances made possible the development of an antibiotics industry in the 1940’s. In the following years this industry expanded considerably. An industry for the manufacture of synthetic sex hormones and new antituberculosis drugs was organized at the beginning of the 1950’s, a period that also saw the development of methods for obtaining and industrially producing synthetic vitamins. In the 1960’s large enterprises for the manufacture of vitamins were constructed.

From 1961 to 1973 enterprises of the pharmaceuticals industry began to produce many drugs that are effective in the treatment of cardiovascular, bacterial, viral, neurological, and mental diseases. Plans were developed and industrial output arranged for new types of medical instruments and technical devices for diagnosis and treatment, including suture equipment, ultrasonic equipment, a respiratory anesthesia apparatus, endoscopic instruments, an artificial blood circulation apparatus, an artificial kidney, instruments for automating clinical and diagnostic tests, blood transfusion systems, sterile medical syringes made of various polymers, stomatological materials, and agents for dental prostheses.

As of 1973, more than 2,000 different drugs and more than 4,000 kinds of medical equipment were being manufactured. By 1972, the total volume of production of the medical industry was more than four times that of 1960. The volume of antibiotics produced had risen 5.6 times.

The manufacture of drugs and certain types of medical equipment is developing successfully in Bulgaria, Hungary, the German Democratic Republic, Poland, and other socialist countries. By comparison with 1960, the 1970 production of medications had grown 11 times in Bulgaria, 5.6 times in Poland, and 3.7 times in Hungary. Pharmaceuticals production is also expanding rapidly in a number of developing countries. The USSR is assisting them in the design and construction of facilities for a medical industry.

The manufacture of drugs and medical equipment is increasing in all industrially developed capitalist countries. Drugs are produced chiefly by large specialized pharmaceuticals monopolies, which, as a rule, have numerous branches in various countries. After World War II the annual growth of pharmaceutical production averaged more than 9 percent. Medical equipment manufacture in many of these countries represents an independent branch of industry. In addition to conglomerates for the manufacture of medical instruments and optometric items, special enterprises and departments have been created for the production of medical instruments and equipment by large machine-building and instruments monopolies. The manufacture of medical instruments and devices has also been organized by some pharmaceutical monopolies.


Materialy XXIV s”ezda KPSS. Moscow, 1971. Page 260.
50 let sovetskogo zdravookhraneniia: 1917-1967. Moscow, 1967. (Collection of articles.)
Voevodin, E. N. Farmatsevticheskaia promyshlennost’ kapitalisticheskikh stran. Moscow, 1971.


References in periodicals archive ?
Unique elements include assisted living and long term care industry salary surveys, a job search agent that matches candidate skills with prospective employer and links to more than 325 other medical industry job search sites maintained by HCJS.
Within a year's time, the virtual reality market dropped to 35 percent, industrial use has remained fairly constant at 40 percent, the entertainment industry and its camera operators account for 15 percent, and the medical industry is 10 percent.
Chinese medical industry is mainly concentrated in Shanghai, Beijing, Guangdong and Zhejiang, accounting for most hygiene resources and higher level technologies.
Salt Lake City, UT), currently develops, manufactures and markets high-tech, proprietary diagnostic equipment and consumable products for the medical industry.
1 E-commerce development of China's medical industry
However, Medical-D-Tect-OR, LLC will be demonstrating a more user-friendly working prototype to the medical industry in the near future.
The Modified Harmonic Radar Technology is designed for use in the medical industry.
Riddell has more than 15 years of medical industry experience.
based staffing firm specializing in serving the financial and other technical industries, recently extended its services to include a new division, Workway Medical, a national staffing service dedicated to placing professionals in the medical industry.
OB), a leading innovative producer of ultrasound devices for the ophthalmic and medical industries, today announced it has entered into exclusive discussions with a leading Chinese medical engineering and research firm aimed at developing Paradigm's next generation of ultrasound products for the medical industry.
Bank Oliver-Allen Technology Leasing has expanded the services it provides the medical industry by introducing a new leasing program that eases the costs associated with acquiring electronic health records (EHRs) and makes the transition to EHRs a reality.
Our internationally renowned chief contributing editors, medical editors, and market analysts possess over 100 years of medical industry and clinical experience.

Full browser ?