higher educational institutions that train physicians for specialties in internal medicine, pediatrics, sanitation, and stomatology. Medical institutes also train pharmacists, and the medicobiological department of the Second Moscow Medical Institute trains biophysicists and biochemists for work in medicine.
In the 1972-73 academic year there were 78 medical institutes, including two specializing in stomatology, and five institutes of pharmacy in the USSR. Physicians are also trained in the medical departments of a number of universities (the university of Vilnius; the Kabarda-Balkar and Mordovian universities; the Universities of Petrozavodsk, Tartu, and Uzhgorod; the P. Lumumba Friendship of Peoples University; and the Chuvash and Yakut universities). More than 303,000 persons were enrolled in medical institutes and university medical departments in the 1972-73 academic year. A total of 47,800 physicians and pharmacists graduated in 1972.
The largest medical institutes are the I. M. Sechenov First Moscow (founded in 1765), N. I. Pirogov Second Moscow (1906), Tashkent (1919), N. Narimanov Azerbaijan (1919), Alma-Ata (1931), Academician A. A. Bogomolets Kiev (1841), Karaganda (1950), Moscow Stomatological (1922), A. M. Gorky Donetsk (1930), Saratov (1930), Academician I. P. Pavlov First Leningrad (1897), and D. I. Ul’ianov Kuibyshev (1942).
Some medical institutes have evening, as well as daytime, divisions. The Perm’ Medical Institute offers correspondence courses in pharmacy. All medical institutes offer graduate programs and (with the exception of the institutes of pharmacy) clinical residencies. Most of the institutes have the right to accept defenses of candidates’ dissertations. In addition, 43 can grant the doctoral degree, including Azerbaijan, Alma-Ata, Fifteenth Anniversary of the All-Union Lenin Communist Youth League Bashkir, Voronezh, Volgograd, S. M. Kirov Gorky, Dnepropetrovsk, Donetsk, Yerevan, Ivanovo, Kazan, Kaunas, Kiev, Kirghiz, Kishinev, Crimea, Red Army Kuban’, and D. I. Ul’ianov Kuibyshev. Other medical institutes granting the doctoral degree are the First Leningrad, Leningrad Sanitary Hygienic, Leningrad Pediatric, L’vov (one of the oldest, founded in 1773), Minsk, First Moscow, Second Moscow, Novosibirsk, N. I. Pirogov Odessa (founded in 1900), N. I. Kalinin Omsk, and Perm’. Also among the institutes entitled to confer the doctoral degree are Riga, Rostov, Academician I. P. Pavlov Riazan’, Saratov, Sverdlovsk, Avicenna Tadzhik, Tashkent, Tomsk (founded in 1888), Turkmen, Cheliabinsk, Khabarovsk, Kharkov (founded in 1805), Yaroslavl, and Moscow Stomatological.
The period of instruction in a medical institute is six years in departments of internal medicine, pediatrics, and sanitation and hygiene; 5½ years in medicobiological departments; and five years in stomatology and pharmacy. Graduates of medical institutes are qualified as general practitioners, pediatricians, health officers, stomatologists, and pharmacists. Graduates of medicobiological departments are qualified as biophysicists or biochemists.
E. V. POTEKHIN