Melampyrum


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Melampyrum

 

(cowwheat), a genus of annual hemiparasitic herbs of the family Scrophulariaceae. The leaves are green, opposite, and usually lanceolate. The flowers are yellow or, less commonly, pink; they form in the axils of large, often brightly colored bracts. The inflorescences are spikelike or racemose. The calyx is tubular and has four lobes; the corolla has two lips. There are four stamens. The fruit is a flattened pod, with one to four large seeds. There are approximately 30 species, distributed in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. Sixteen species are found in the USSR, growing in thickets, closed kettled valleys, clearings, damp fields, and meadows, as well as along forest edges. The most widespread species are Melampyrum nemorosum, M. pratense, and field cowwheat (M. arvense). Field cowwheat grows as a weed among crops and produces nectar. The seeds of many species contain the glucoside rhinantin and are poisonous to livestock.

References in periodicals archive ?
Melampyrum pratense, Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium myrtillus, Aulacomnium palustre, Cladina spp.
Cirsium oleraceum Cirsium palustre Deschampsia caespitosa + Drosera rotundifolia Epilobium adenocaulon Epilobium angustifolium + Epilobium hirsutum Epilobium montanum Eriophomm vaginatum + + + + Galinsoga ciliata Lycopodium annolinum Melampyrum pratense + Mycelis muralis Orthilia secunda Oxycoccus palustris + Poa trivialis Pteridium aquilinum + Pyrola rotundifolia Rubus chamaemorus Senecio vulgaris Taraxacum spp.
vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris, Festuca ovina, Linaria vulgaris, Luzula pilosa and Melampyrum pratense in the dwarf shrub and herb layer, and Dicranum polysetum, D.
Melampyrum, heather (Calluna vulgaris) and Anemone type refer to the existence of open forest vegetation in the area.
Lychnis flos-cuculi Chenopodiaceae * Chenopodium album Rumex Acetosa/acetosella t Lamiaceae * Stachys palustris Rubiaceae * Urtica dioica Rosaceae * Melampyrum Cyperaceae * Ranunculus sceleratus Brassiceae * Lycopodium Ptertdium Equisetum Polypodiaceae * Sphagnum Salix Pinus Picea Tilia Umus Querqus Fraxinus Corylus avellana Betula Alnus Table 4.
Papaver, Artemisia, Melampyrum, Chenopodiaceae) relative to grass and pasture weeds and relatively little cereal-type pollen.
Lythrum + salicaria Malva sylvestris Melampyrum + Peucadanum t.
The flowers of the Rhinantheae, such as Pedicularis, Melampyrum, Rhinanthus, Castilleja, and Lamourouxia [the latter may be a member of the Agalineae, according to its seed morphology in Barringer's (1984) study], also show strong bilateral symmetry.
caerulea communities with dry forest edge species of Trifolio-Geranietea covered small patches in dry, sunny sites along the forest-grassland edges and often contained several forest edge species such as Agrimonia eupatoria, Trifolium medium, Origanum vulgare, Melampyrum nemorosum, Solidago virgaurea.