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brown and black (eumelanins) or yellow (pheomelanins) water-insoluble macromolecular pigments.

Melanins, which are widespread in plants and animals, are responsible for the color of the integuments and their derivatives (hair, feathers, scales) in vertebrates, the cuticles in insects, and the rind in some fruits. In vertebrates, melanins are formed in special cells called melanocytes and deposited in the form of granules in which the melanins are bound to proteins (melano-proteins). The precursor of melanins in the body is the amino acid tyrosine, whose oxidation to dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) and subsequently to dopa quinone is catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosinase. Further transformations occur without the participation of enzymes and result in the formation of the melanins, whose chemical structures have not yet been established (empirical formula, C77H98O33N14S).

To a large extent, melanins determine the color of human skin, one of the main characteristics of race.


Lerner, A. B. “Hormones and Skin Color.” Scientific American, 1961, vol. 205, no. 1.
Mason, H. S. “Structure of Melanins.” In Pigment Cell Biology. New York, 1959. Page 563.
Harley-Mason, J. “Melanins.” In Comprehensive Biochemistry, vol. 6. Amsterdam-London-New York, 1965.


References in periodicals archive ?
Organic amines and metal ions have high melanin affinity (7,8).
However, because they did not measure the actual amount and type of melanin in the hair, only arbitrary relationships between incorporation and hair color or ethnic origin were possible.
Naringenin, l-DOPA, 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y1]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), melanin and IBMX were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
The melanin content was measured by a previously described method (Kim et al.
Because melanin can absorb UV-A and is present in melanocytes, scientists speculate that it might play some role in promoting melanoma.
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of grape melanin.
A standardized test for the identification and characterization of melanins using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy.
Therefore, in this study, the direct influence of salidroside on tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis was investigated to testify if this compound has the skin lightening effect to be developed as a product for cosmetic industry and skin pigmentation disorder treatment.
2004) found that no melanocytes can also cause the whitening of human hair due to the lack of melanins in the hair shaft.
The fossils may not contain any actual melanin since most organic matter breaks down before fossilizing.
005% melanin solution as a topically applied treatment to hair, Mel-Co found that melanin:
Keywords: Aureobasidium, melanin, pigment, ultraviolet