Mendicant Orders

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Mendicant Orders


Catholic monastic orders whose members had to take a vow of poverty and renounce all worldly goods.

Most of the mendicant orders were formed in the 13th century, at a time when anticlerical heretical teachings were fairly widespread. The first of the mendicant orders was the Franciscan Order, founded by Francis of Assisi. Noting the popularity of the ideals of “evangelical poverty,” the papacy sought to use mendicant orders as a means of discouraging the masses of believers from participation in heretical movements and as a means of consolidating its influence and political stature. In 1210, Pope Innocent III approved the founding of the Franciscan Order. In 1216 the mendicant order of the Dominicans was approved; in 1245 (or 1247) the Carmelites, who had been active since the second half of the 12th century, were reorganized into a mendicant order. In 1256 small monastic congregations were united into the mendicant order of the Augustinians. Other mendicant orders, including the Brothers of Charity and the Servants of St. Mary, were formed later. In the 13th century the Dominicans and, to a certain extent, the Franciscans were placed in charge of the Inquisition. In the late 13th century members of mendicant orders undertook missionary work.

By placing the process of establishing mendicant orders under its control, the papacy, as it were, sanctioned certain ideas advanced by popular heresies. The charters of the mendicant orders provided for the renunciation of any personal property or permanent residence; members of the orders were obliged to live solely on alms. However, the principle of mendicancy was systematically violated from the earliest days of the mendicant orders. By the 13th century the mendicant orders were hardly distinguishable from other monastic orders.

References in periodicals archive ?
Giles seems to have become convinced, even in those early days, that the wild theories of the radical Franciscans represented a threat not only to the mendicant orders, including his own Augustinian Hermits, but also to the stability of the entire Church militant.
Much of this polemical content was occasioned by questions raised by other mendicant orders, foremost of which were the Dominicans.
As well as creating a storm of protest at the time, the Franciscan pontiff's intervention in the affairs of the other mendicant order marked an epoch in Dominican history.
By spending space on mendicant orders, for example, less is available for a more comprehensive treatment of the monastic orders per se, on which many core themes have been left out.
Moreover, Benedictines are not a mendicant order -- the rule of St.
Schiewer discusses sermons written in German for nuns of the Dominican Observance movement and heard or read by female members of a mendicant order who led a cloistered life.
Hawkins gives us a vivid reconstruction of the experience of religious life in Florence, from annual baptisms in San Giovanni, to the typical parish chapel serving thirty or forty families, the naves of churches used more like public squares, and the impact of papal reforms, mendicant orders and lay confraternities on religious devotion.
Yuichi Akae's contribution to Brepolss Sermo series sets out to clarify and detail the systems constructed by the mendicant orders to support their preaching ministry, in particular that of the Austin friars in fourteenth-century England.
While it would have been unheard of in any case for a woman to earn a doctorate, another development also worked to her exclusion: university theological faculties, many run by the new Mendicant orders (Franciscans and Dominicans), also required ordination.
While the two mendicant orders shared fundamental goals in common (leading on occasion to fraternal infighting), Cannon also brings out differences of emphasis.
The book is divided into two parts: a chronological survey in three chapters tracing the development of the mendicant orders in Ireland, and a consideration in seven chapters of discrete aspects of the mendicants' lives and ministries.