Mendoza

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Mendoza,

city (1991 pop. 773,559), capital of Mendoza prov., W Argentina. With a backdrop of snowcapped mountains, Mendoza is surrounded by a fertile oasis, known as the "Garden of the Andes," irrigated by the Mendoza River. It is an agricultural market and the center of a rich wine-producing region, largely settled by Italian immigrants. Food processing and petrochemicals are also important to the city's economy. Mendoza was founded in 1561 and belonged to Chile until the creation of the viceroyalty of Río de la Plata (1776). Destroyed by earthquake in 1861, the town was rebuilt and expanded rapidly after the completion of the railroad to Buenos Aires late in the 19th cent. It was also the eastern terminus of the Transandine RailwayTransandine Railway,
former rail line, 156 mi (251 km) long, between Mendoza, Argentina, and Los Andes, Chile, traversing the Andes at Uspallata Pass. Opened to traffic in 1910, the railway rose to c.10,500 ft (3,200 m) at the long tunnel on the international boundary.
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. It was in Mendoza that San MartínSan Martín, José de
, 1778–1850, South American revolutionist, b. Yapeyú, in present-day Argentina. After service with the Spanish army in Europe, he returned (1812) to join the revolution against Spain in his native country.
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 began (1817) the final liberation of Chile from Spain. The city has three universities. Its landmarks include a Franciscan monastery where several Argentine national heroes are buried.

Mendoza

 

a province in western Argentina. Area, 150,800 sq km. Population, 973,000 (1970). The capital is the city of Mendoza. Grape growing, vegetable growing, and fruit growing on irrigated lands (Mendoza is first in the country in irrigated land area) are well developed. Mendoza is the country’s main region for grape growing and wine-making, and for olive plantations and olive-oil production. Petroleum and natural gas are extracted, and uranium ore is mined. Industry includes the processing of agricultural raw materials, petroleum refining, and cement production.


Mendoza

 

a city in western Argentina, the capital of Mendoza Province. Population, 118,600 (1970; with suburbs, 471,-000). It is a railroad junction and the country’s chief wine-making center. Fruits and vegetables are processed and canned there. Mendoza is the center of a horticultural and grape-growing region; it also produces cement and textiles.

Mendoza

1
Pedro de . died 1537, Spanish soldier and explorer; founder of Buenos Aires (1536)

Mendoza

2
a city in W central Argentina, in the foothills of the Sierra de los Paramillos: largely destroyed by an earthquake in 1861; commercial centre of an intensively cultivated irrigated region; University of Cuyo (1939). Pop.: 1 072 000 (2005 est.)