Menominee

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Menominee

(mənŏm`ənē), indigenous people of North America whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). Also called the Menomini, they were a sedentary people who chiefly subsisted on the gathering of wild rice; the Algonquian name for wild rice is manomin. In c.1634, when they were visited by the missionary Jean Nicolet, the Menominee were living at the mouth of the Menominee River in Wisconsin and Michigan. From 1671 until 1854 they inhabited settlements that extended from the Menominee River S to the Fox River and bordered the western shore of Green Bay. Although some of the Menominee supported the British in the American Revolution and the War of 1812, they were generally peaceful toward the American settlers. The Menominee were, however, bitter enemies of the neighboring Algonquian tribes, who waged constant warfare to drive the Menominee out of the rich wild-rice area. In 1854 the Menominee were settled on a reservation (Menominee Reservation) on the Wolf River, in N central Wisconsin. The tribe owns one of the largest sawmills in the Midwest and operates a casino. In 1990 there were some 8,000 Menominee in the United States.

Bibliography

See F. Keesing, The Menomini Indians of Wisconsin (1939, repr. 1971); L. Spindler, Menomini Women and Culture Change (1962).


Menominee

(mənŏm`ənē), city (1990 pop. 9,398), seat of Menominee co., N Mich., W Upper Peninsula, on Green Bay at the mouth of the Menominee River; inc. 1883. It is a distribution center for upper Michigan and N Wisconsin. Metal, paper, and wood products and machinery are manufactured. Of interest is the "mystery ship," raised (1969) from the bottom of Green Bay, where it sank in 1864. A bridge connects Menominee with Marinette, Wis.

Menominee,

river, 118 mi (190 km) long, formed by the union of the Brule and the Michigamme rivers above Iron Mountain, W Upper Peninsula, N Mich., and flowing SE into Green Bay at Menominee. It passes through a once plentiful iron-ore region and forms part of the Wisconsin-Michigan line.

Menominee

 

(Menomini), an Algonquian-speaking Indian tribe in North America, numbering approximately 4,000 persons (1970, estimate).

Before the colonization of America, the Menominee lived in the Great Lakes region and engaged in fishing, hunting, and wild-rice gathering. In the second half of the 17th century, the Menominee, who had been drawn into the fur trade, abandoned their settled way of life and became wandering fur trappers. The commercial fur trade caused the disintegration of the Menominee maternal clan structure. In 1854, the Menominee were settled on a reservation within their former tribal territory (Wisconsin, USA).

The Menominee work as hired laborers, farmers, and wild-rice gatherers. By 1961, the Menominee had been deprived of most of their lands as a result of government acts; many of them were forced to move to cities in search of work. The Menominee are Catholics.