Messenia


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Messenia

(mĕsē`nēə), ancient region of SW Greece, in the Peloponnesus and corresponding to the modern nome of Messinías. Excavation has revealed an important center of Mycenaean culture at PylosPylos
, ancient harbor, Messenia, SW Greece, on a bay of the Ionian Sea. Excavations have revealed a great Mycenaean palace of the 13th cent. B.C., perhaps the dwelling of King Nestor.
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 dating from the 13th cent. B.C. From the 8th cent. B.C. the Messenians were engaged in a series of revolts against expanding Sparta. After the First Messenian War the Spartans annexed (c.700 B.C.) the eastern part of Messenia. With the Second Messenian War the remaining inhabitants were reduced (7th cent. B.C.) to helots. The Third Messenian War (464–459 B.C.) was a failure for Messenia, but very costly to Sparta. The battle of LeuctraLeuctra
, village of ancient Greece, in Boeotia, 7 mi (11.3 km) SW of Thebes. There the Spartans were defeated (371 B.C.) by the Thebans under Epaminondas. A brilliant tactical success, the battle also dealt a severe blow to Spartan hegemony.
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 (371 B.C.) freed Messenia, and Messene was founded (c.369 B.C.) as the capital. The region gave its name to Messina, Sicily, because of an influx of Messenian colonists (c.490 B.C.).

Bibliography

See C. A. Roebuck, A History of Messenia from 369 to 146 B.C. (1941); The Minnesota Messenia Expedition, ed. by W. A. McDonald and G. R. Rapp (1972).

Messenia

 

(Messinia), the name of a region in ancient Greece, in the southwestern Peloponnesus, and of a modern nomos. According to legend, it was inhabited by the Leleges. Homer describes it as the kingdom of the legendary Nestor, with its capital at Pilos, where many remains of the Aegean culture have been preserved. As a result of the Messenian Wars, Messenia came under Spartan rule. It regained its independence in 369 B.C., after Epaminondas’ victory over Sparta. That year Messene was founded as the capital of the region. In the first century B.C., Messenia was incorporated into the Roman province of Achaea.

Messenia

the southwestern area of the Peloponnese in S Greece
References in periodicals archive ?
However, when considered in relation to the population of Laconia and Messenia as a whole, it is best understood as an oligarchy of Spartans who ruled over a non-Spartan majority (cf.
Mycenaean Messenia and the Kingdom of Pylos (Prehistory Monograph 45).
In contrast to the long-running Messenia and Vasilikos valley surveys, the Aqaba Project was planned, executed and published much more promptly, inevitably reflecting a less extended engagement with the landscape, but offering a more sharply focused result.
From Messenia and Cyprus to Jordan and Nevada, we find the same concerns about the threat of modern land use and development to the survival of the archaeological record.
These soft sediments of ancient Thessaly, Elis and Messenia weathered to grassland (Xerolls) and cracking-clay soils (Xererts), and remain the principal agricultural resource of Greece.
In all, 183 structures were recognised, ranging from palatial complexes to single-room buildings; the bulk come from Mycenae and Tiryns, but a substantial number from Nichoria in Messenia, a less important site but generally agreed to be one of the local administrative centres of the Pylos 'state'.
After a useful introduction into the current state of the field of 'memory studies', and the potential contribution of material culture to that field, Alcock goes on to focus on three specific case-studies: the treatment of the 'old' Greek past during period of the Roman empire; uses of Cretan history in the Hellenistic and Roman periods; and, finally, the nature of the retained, if repressed, memory of the long-enslaved population of Messenia.
Dr SIAPKAS's dissertation tries to bring certain strands of social theory to bear on the Spartan occupation of Messenia, pointing out that, until recently, classicists and some archaeologists read ancient assertions of ethnic identity as unmotivated descriptions of inherent quality.
The palace of Nestor at Pylos in western Messenia, 1: The buildings and their contents.
Indeed, the 1905 council resolution of the Municipality of Arios in Messenia, concerning the renaming of a number of villages, states that the requested changes are necessary because, among other reasons,
Messenia has, of course, been surveyed before, but surveyed extensively by the Minnesota Messenia Expedition, whose focus was on the Late Bronze Age settlement pattern associated with the 'Palace of Nestor' at Ano Englianos.
The evidence from the lagoonal and terrestrial sediments comes mainly from the shallow upper regions of the Gulfs of Messenia (Kraft & Rapp 1975), Lakonia and Argolis (Kraft et al.