metabolite

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metabolite,

organic compound that is a starting material in, an intermediate in, or an end product of metabolismmetabolism,
sum of all biochemical processes involved in life. Two subcategories of metabolism are anabolism, the building up of complex organic molecules from simpler precursors, and catabolism, the breakdown of complex substances into simpler molecules, often accompanied by
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. Starting materials are substances, usually small and of simple structure, absorbed by the organism as food. These include the vitamins and essential amino acids. They can be used to construct more complex molecules, or they can be broken down into simpler ones. Intermediary metabolites are by far the most common; they may be synthesized from other metabolites, perhaps used to make more complex substances, or broken down into simpler compounds, often with the release of chemical energy. For example, glucose, perhaps the single most important metabolite, can be synthesized in a process called gluconeogenesis, can be polymerized to form starch or glycogen, and can be broken down during glycolysis in order to obtain chemical energy. End products of metabolism are the final result of the breakdown of other metabolites and are excreted from the organism without further change; they usually cannot be used to synthesize other metabolites. Urea, for example, is an end product of protein degradation in man, the other primates, and the Dalmatian dog. Carbon dioxide is usually thought of as an end product of carbohydrate, protein, and fat degradation in aerobic organisms, although technically, carbon dioxide, as carbonic acid, can participate in the biosynthesis of some substances, particularly in plants. Complex substances such as proteins, although end products of a synthetic process, can almost always be broken down again and are usually not considered to be true end products of metabolism. A compound that closely resembles a metabolite in molecular structure but is metabolically inactive is called an antimetabolite; such a substance is often used as a drug in the treatment of malignant disease. When introduced into the body, it is mistaken by the cell for the metabolite it simulates, thus preventing the cell from using the genuine substance necessary to its life and growth. It is difficult to design molecules so that they will be metabolic poisons for malignant cells and not for normal cells as well. Folic acid (see coenzymecoenzyme
, any one of a group of relatively small organic molecules required for the catalytic function of certain enzymes. A coenzyme may either be attached by covalent bonds to a particular enzyme or exist freely in solution, but in either case it participates intimately in
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) antagonists such as aminopterin and methotrexate are used in the treatment of leukemiasleukemia
, cancerous disorder of the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymphatics, liver, spleen) characterized by excessive production of immature or mature leukocytes (white blood cells; see blood) and consequently a crowding-out of red blood cells and platelets.
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 and other neoplastic diseases. The purine antagonist mercaptopurine is also used for the treatment of acute leukemia, while azathioprine (Imuran) is used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs. Pyrimidine antagonists used in cancer chemotherapy include fluorouracil and fluorodeoxyuridine. Most of the agents are designed to halt cell division in rapidly dividing malignant cells by the disruption of the metabolism of purines and pyrimidines, two classes of compounds necessary for nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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 synthesis and hence necessary for cell division.

metabolite

[mə′tab·ə‚līt]
(biochemistry)
A product of intermediary metabolism.
References in periodicals archive ?
It allows for increased sequence coverage and peptide detection in proteomics analyses, and better detection in metabolomics and lipidomics analyses.
Jessica Prenni, Director of the Proteomics and Metabolomics Core at Colorado State University, stated, "RayBiotech's portfolio of antibody array and ELISA-related services and products perfectly complements the objectives of our core facility.
The current dominance of these biomarkers is partially attributable to the application of targeted metabolomics as the most frequently used strategy, which covers a limited number of selected 100-200 metabolites.
Products that Waters sells for metabolomics applications include the Q-Tof Premier Q-TOF MS system, the Waters Metabonomics UPLC/MS/MS system, and Metabolynx, a software package that interprets MS data.
Metabolon will test plasma samples obtained from patients using its industry-leading metabolomics platform that searches for signatures of HD by measuring the spectrum of biochemical changes and mapping these changes to metabolic pathways.
The Global Metabolomics market is showing a double digit growth (CAGR 35%) due to supportive factors such as, (i) increased willingness of biotechnology and pharma companies to adopt metabolomics concept to drive R&D activity within the industry, (ii) rapid growth of metabolomics data analysis softwares and solutions, and (iii) the advancement of analytical technologies.
Our collaborative relationship with Baylor and our shared investment in this new center will foster development of advanced research tools and new applications in metabolomics and integrated biology," said Carl Raimond, Agilent vice president of Sales and Field Operations, Americas Life Sciences.
In all probability, the future of metabolomics is slated to hinge on discovering biomarkers for determining the presence of disease in an individual biological system.
Proteomic and metabolomic approaches to biomarker discovery.
Selected preanalytical aspects of targeted metabolomics investigations of human blood and urine by GC-MS and LC-MS (11-17), as well as the effects of delayed storage on human cerebrospinal fluid metabolomes (18), have been reported.
Efforts to identify markers of exposure are concerned primarily with discerning patterns in output from microarray, proteomics, and metabolomics technology.
The patent is the first in a series of pending patent -applications Icoria has filed relating to the application of novel computational methods and analytical tools designed to further its capabilities in the fields of systems biology and metabolomics.