Metaclass

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Metaclass

The class of a class. A metaclass is a class whose instances are themselves classes.
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From how to avoid common pitfalls with metaclasses to manipulating Python's built-in modules to best effect, code writers already working with Python will find this packed with optimization solutions that will improve the quality of their efforts and streamline productions by taking the guesswork out of results.
He covers Pythonic thinking, functions, classes and inheritance, metaclasses and attributes, concurrency and parallelism, built-in-modules, collaboration, and production.
6); reorganizes and expands some material; and includes new chapters on advanced topics like object-oriented programming, Unicode and byte strings and string and file differences, managed attribute tools and descriptors, function and class decorators, and metaclasses.
Metaclasses provide introspective features, such as obtaining information about classes, methods, and parameter types, as well as dynamic features for changing structural and behavioural properties of a running program.
Four metaclasses of transportation objects are involved in dynamic and spatialized relations:
Thus functors from M-CLS-SPEC to CLS-SPEC are the refinements from metaclasses to classes, and functors from MM-CLS-SPEC to M-CLS-SPEC the refinements from meta-meta-classes to meta-classes.
The following is the hierarchy given by Laenzlinger (2000: 59), where he conflates under larger semantic metaclasses several adjacent adjective classes proposed by Scott (1998):
1 Static and Dynamic aspects of metaentities The metamodel consists of metaclasses.
1995], there can be infinite layers of objects: ordinary objects, classes, metaclasses, etc.
Normally, metaclasses do not facilitate kernel extensions, since they exist at the model level, above the structures that specify kernel services and policies (concurrency control, access control, etc.
Beazley has been a Python programmer since 1996, and he describes advanced features such as generators, co-routines, closures, metaclasses and decorators while providing coverage of library modules for threads, subprocesses and multi-processing.