Sheffield

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Sheffield,

city and metropolitan borough (1991 pop. 470,685), N England, at the confluence of the Don River and four tributaries. Sheffield was one of the leading industrial cities of England. It has been a center of cutlery manufacture since the 14th cent. The Cutlers' Company, the governing body of cutlery manufacturers, was founded in the city in 1624. Silver and electroplate goods, tools, and heavy steel goods, including plates for artillery and rails, are also made. The first Bessemer-processBessemer process
[for Sir Henry Bessemer], industrial process for the manufacture of steel from molten pig iron. The principle involved is that of oxidation of the impurities in the iron by the oxygen of air that is blown through the molten iron; the heat of oxidation raises the
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 steelworks were built in Sheffield in 1859; the industry is now all but finished. In the city's Weston Park are an observatory, City Museum, and the Mappin Art Gallery. Also of note is Graves Art Gallery. Educational institutions include the Univ. of Sheffield (1905) and Sheffield Polytechnic.

Sheffield,

industrial city (1990 pop. 10,380), Colbert co., NW Ala., on the Tennessee River near Muscle Shoals, in an iron and coal area; inc. 1885. Its varied manufactures include aluminum products, metals, structural castings, rolled rubber, and motor vehicle parts. Nearby Wilson Dam (1925) supplies power for the area's industries and has one of the world's highest single-lift locks. The home of Helen KellerKeller, Helen Adams,
1880–1968, American author and lecturer, blind and deaf from an undiagnosed illness at the age of two, b. Tuscumbia, Ala. In 1887 she was put under the charge of Anne Sullivan (see Macy, Anne Sullivan), who was her teacher and companion until
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 is in nearby Tuscumbia.

Sheffield

 

a city and county borough in Great Britain, situated on the Don River. Capital of the metropolitan county of South Yorkshire. Population, 558,000 (1976). Sheffield, a major center of heavy industry, is the country’s largest producer of quality steel. The city produces machinery, including machine tools and electrical-engineering and hydraulic equipment. It has long been known for its metalwork, hardware, cutlery, and jewelry. Arms are also produced. Other important branches of industry are food-processing and light industry.

Museums in Sheffield include the Sheffield Municipal Museum (founded 1875), which houses a collection of metalware, and the Mappin and Graves art galleries. The city has a university.

Sheffield

1. a city in N England, in Sheffield unitary authority, South Yorkshire on the River Don: important centre of steel manufacture and of the cutlery industry; Sheffield university (1905) and Sheffield Hallam University (1992). Pop.: 439 866 (2001)
2. a unitary authority in N England, in South Yorkshire. Pop.: 512 500 (2003 est.). Area: 368 sq. km (142 sq. miles)
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