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Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They inhabit Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Massachusetts, and Maine. French missionaries came into contact with them in the early 17th cent., and the Micmacs were allies of the French throughout the history of New France. Contact with Europeans did not have the usual effect of tribal disintegration, and the Micmacs still thrive, though their culture has changed radically. Many are Roman Catholics. The Micmacs are expert canoeists, and, although their economy once centered on fishing and hunting, they now derive their income primarily from agriculture. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Micmac in Canada. Another 2,700 Micmac live in the United States, the only federally recognized band being the Aroostook in Maine.


See W. D. and R. S. Wallis, The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada (1955); J. F. Pratson, Land of the Four Directions (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
In the interior were the Mi'kmaq Indians, French allies.
A mixed force of French and Mi'kmaq Indians laid siege to Annapolis Royal, and called on the Acadians to revolt.
The majority acquitted Marshall of the three charges because it agreed with his contention that he and all Mi'kmaq have a treaty right to hunt and fish and to sell their catch to the extent that would allow them to earn a moderate living.
The Supreme Court found that not all of the agreements between the Mi'kmaq and the British found their way into the written treaty.
But the Mi'kmaq Grand Council says Manley trampled their people's constitutional and treaty rights in the process.
Mi'kmaq lawyer Bernd Christmas, the director of operations for the Membertou First Nation, N.
As well, the newly released Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples will be placed within the context of the community needs of the Mi'kmaqs of Nova Scotia.
With the goal of advancing self government, 13 Mi'kmaq First Nations, Canada and the province of Nova Scotia committed to a partnership forum with the signing of the Mi'kmaq-Nova Scotia-Canada Tripartite Forum Memorandum of Understanding.