At an informal discussion in 2004, I used the phrase "the Miao people
believe that Chi You was their ancestral king.
In some Miao regions that neighbored with Han regions, such as certain Miao regions in western Hunan, there were even cases of bribery from Miao people to Han local lords, so that they could be registered as Han and their villages could be changed to Han regions.
Within the Miao territory, the schools of various levels always designated extra spots for the Miao people apart from the normal quota.
By 1741, the name came to be used for thirteen kinds of Miao people, distinguished from each other by cultural traits and the ethnic costumes of their women.
The Jade Emperor gave each of them a text, but a cow ate the text of the Miao while they were resting at a bridge so Miao people had no writing today.
A further assumption is that the current Miao people are homogenous (displaying unity and uniformity) in acknowledging these historical references and their experiences of perceived historical traumas.
17) Bender (personal communication, 12/6/07) points out that the term "Miao-Tseu" seems to be similar to the modern term "Miao-zi", a derogatory appellation still sometimes heard today, but not in front of Miao people, as it is taboo under government regulations.
Guizhou is home to about five million Miao people, representing one half of all Miao Chinese.
Li Tianyi said the Army of Qing Emperor not only executed Zhang Shiumei, but brought Zhang Xiumei's head from Changsha to warn the Miao people residing in the Leigong Mountain area.
He said the Miao people of the area experienced natural hardship due to drought, and as a result, they faced starvation.
Among those who question the historical version that King Ci You was the ancestral king of the Miao people is the scholar Wu Xiaodong of Beijing.
Although migration from rural areas to the many large cities in Guizhou has recently been on the rise, the majority of the Miao people in the province continue to live in rural and mountainous areas.