Michael

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Michael

(Michael Obrenović) (mī`kəl ōbrĕ`nəvĭch), 1823–68, prince of Serbia (1839–42, 1860–68); younger son of Prince MilošMiloš
or Milosh
(Miloš Obrenović) , 1780–1860, prince of Serbia (1817–39, 1858–60), founder of the Obrenović dynasty and of modern Serbia.
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. He succeeded his brother, MilanMilan
(Milan Obrenović) , 1854–1901, prince (1868–82) and king (1882–89) of Serbia; grandnephew of Miloš Obrenović. He succeeded his cousin Michael Obrenović as prince.
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, but was deposed (1842) several years later by supporters of AlexanderAlexander
(Alexander Karadjordjević) , 1806–85, prince of Serbia (1842–58), son of Karageorge (Karadjordje). He was elected to succeed the deposed Michael of Serbia.
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 (Alexander Karadjordjević). In 1858, Miloš was restored to the throne and Michael returned with his father, on whose death (1860) he once more became prince. Michael modernized his country and prepared its complete liberation from Ottoman vassalage. At the end of his reign, the last Ottoman garrisons withdrew from the Serbian fortresses, including Belgrade. Michael was assassinated and was succeeded by his cousin Milan.

Michael,

1921–, king of Romania (1927–30, 1940–47). His father, Prince Carol (later Carol IICarol II,
1893–1953, king of Romania, son of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. While crown prince, he contracted a morganatic marriage with Zizi Labrino but divorced her to marry (1921) Princess Helen of Greece.
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), renounced his right of succession in 1925, and young Michael ascended the throne under a regency on the death of FerdinandFerdinand,
1865–1927, king of Romania (1914–27), nephew of Carol I. The second son of the Prussian prince, Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, he was designated successor to the heirless Carol I in 1880.
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. However, in 1930 his father returned to be recognized as king. When Carol II was deposed in 1940, Michael once more became king. In 1944 he overthrew the dictatorship of Ion AntonescuAntonescu, Ion
, 1882–1946, Romanian marshal and dictator. He served in World War I and later became chief of staff, but he fell into disfavor with King Carol II because of his pro-Nazi attitude and his suspected intrigues with the Iron Guard. In World War II, on Sept.
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 and concluded an armistice with the Allies (see RomaniaRomania
or Rumania
, republic (2005 est. pop. 22,330,000), 91,699 sq mi (237,500 sq km), SE Europe. It borders on Hungary in the northwest, on Serbia in the southwest, on Bulgaria in the south, on the Black Sea in the southeast, on Moldova in the northeast, and on
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). Conflicts with the Communist-dominated coalition government after World War II led to his abdication (Dec., 1947) and exile; he was stripped of his Romanian citizenship a year later. He married Princess Anne of Bourbon-Parma (1923–2016) in 1948. After the collapse (1989) of Communist rule in Romania, his citizenship was restored (1997) and he reestablished a residence in Romania.

Michael

(Michael Romanov), 1596–1645, czar of Russia (1613–45), founder of the RomanovRomanov
, ruling dynasty of Russia from 1613 to 1917. The name Romanov was adopted in the 16th cent. by a family of boyars (great nobles) that traced its beginnings to the 14th cent. Czar Ivan IV took as his first wife Anastasia Romanov.
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 dynasty; grandnephew of Anastasia, first wife of Ivan IV. His election as czar, following successive appearances of false pretenders (see DmitriDmitri
or Demetrius
, 1582–91, czarevich, son of Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) of Russia. His brother, Feodor I, succeeded Ivan in 1584, but Boris Godunov actually ruled Russia for the period of Feodor's reign (1584–98).
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), ended the so-called Time of Troubles, a period of social and political chaos in Russia that had begun in the late 16th cent. The real power in the government was Michael's father, the patriarch Philaret (d. 1633). During Michael's reign the peasantry was further reduced to serfdom; peace was temporarily obtained with Poland and Sweden; and some Western industrial and military techniques were introduced by foreign manufacturers and other experts. Michael was succeeded by his son Alexis.

Michael

(mī`kəl) [Heb.,=who is like God?], archangel prominent in Christian, Jewish, and Muslim traditions. In the Bible and early Jewish literature, Michael is one of the angels of God's presence. He is depicted as a warrior-prince leading the celestial armies against wicked forces and as Israel's guardian angel. The intermediary between God and MosesMoses
, Hebrew lawgiver, probably b. Egypt. The prototype of the prophets, he led his people in the 13th cent. B.C. out of bondage in Egypt to the edge of Canaan. The narrative in the Bible is the chief source of information on his life.
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 on Mt. Sinai, Michael also confronts the devil over Moses' right of proper burial. In Christian tradition he is the angel with the sword. Michael is venerated in the Roman Catholic and Eastern churches. His feast (jointly with the other archangels) is Michaelmas, Sept. 29; it is the anniversary of the dedication of a Roman basilica to him. On May 8 he is honored for his apparition (492?) on Monte Gargano, Italy. He is supposed to have appeared to Joan of ArcJoan of Arc,
Fr. Jeanne D'Arc (zhän därk), 1412?–31, French saint and national heroine, called the Maid of Orléans; daughter of a farmer of Domrémy on the border of Champagne and Lorraine.
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 and on the site of Mont-Saint-MichelMont-Saint-Michel
, rocky isle (1993 est. pop. 72) in the Gulf of Saint-Malo, an arm of the English Channel, Manche dept., NW France, 1 mi (1.6 km) off the coast, near Avranches.
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.

Michael,

in the Bible. 1 Father of Sethur the spy. 2 Chief of Issachar. 3 One of David's captains at Ziklag. 4 Jehoshaphat's murdered son.

Michael

leader of angels against Satan. [N.T.: Revelation 12:7–9; Br. Lit.: Paradise Lost]
See: Angel

Michael

1. 1596--1645, tsar of Russia (1613--45); founder of the Romanov dynasty
2. born 1921, king of Romania (1927--30, as part of a three-part regency; 1940--47), who relinquished the throne (1930--40) in favour of his father, Carol II. He led the coup d'?tat that overthrew (1944) Antonescu but was forced to abdicate (1947) by the Communists
3. Saint Bible one of the archangels. Feast day: Sept. 29 or Nov. 8