Michel Foucault

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Foucault, Michel,

1926–84, French philosopher and historian. He was professor at the Collège de France (1970–84). He is renowned for historical studies that reveal the sometimes morally disturbing power relations inherent in social practices. Influenced by NietzscheNietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm
, 1844–1900, German philosopher, b. Röcken, Prussia. The son of a clergyman, Nietzsche studied Greek and Latin at Bonn and Leipzig and was appointed to the chair of classical philology at Basel in 1869.
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, he called these studies, such as Madness and Civilization (1961, tr. 1970), "genealogies." Foucault also analyzed systems of knowledge, i.e., individual disciplines in science, such as natural history and economics. He aimed through this "archeology" of knowledge to uncover the unconscious rules guiding such systems and thereby to understand their relations to one another. See his Archeology of Knowledge (1969, tr. 1972) and The Order of Things (1966, tr. 1970). In his last writings, including the History of Sexuality, vol. 2 (1984, tr. 1985), Foucault studied what he called "ethics," namely the self's relationship to itself.


See biography by D. Macey (1993); P. Rabinow, ed., Essential Works of Foucault, 1954–1988 (1997–); H. L. Dreyfus and P. Rabinow, Michel Foucault (1982); R. Michel, Foucault (1985); D. R. Shumway, Michel Foucault (1992); L. McNay, Foucault: A Critical Introduction (1994); C. G. Prado, Starting with Foucault: An Introduction to Genealogy (1995, repr. 2000); S. J. Hekman, ed., Feminist Interpretations of Michel Foucault (1996); C. Horroacks and Z. Jevtic, Introducing Foucault (1997); P. Barker, Michel Foucault: An Introduction (1998); A. L. Brown, On Foucault: A Critical Introduction (2000); G. Danaher et al., Understanding Foucault (2000); K. A. Robinson, Michel Foucault and the Freedom of Thought (2001); R. M. Strozier, Foucault, Subjectivity, and Identity (2001); P. Veyne, Foucault: His Thought, His Character (2010).

References in periodicals archive ?
of North Florida) addresses the metaphor of "the closet" as applied to three queer figures in French and American culture: philosopher Michael Foucault, literary critic Ronald Bathes, and artist and icon Andy Warhol.
1) Michael Foucault, The Archeology of Knowledge, London: Routledge, 2002, pp.
He calls on the likes of John Berger, perhaps the greatest modern interpreter of visual art, Susan Sontag, Michael Foucault, Patrick Kavanagh, DH Lawrence, Robert Williams Parry and George Ewart Evans to provide the context for Morris' images.
2) Michael Foucault, The History of Sexuality Volume II: The Use of Pleasure (New York: Random House Inc, 1990), p.
Not even Michael Foucault could set the record straight with his Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason.
This text is especially useful to those who want to expand on the works of Anthony Bourdieu in the case of practice theory, Michael Foucault for theories of power, Anthony Giddens for structuration theory, and Clifford Geertz for interpretations of culture, for example.
While the authors thus acknowledge the postmodern turn, they firmly deny the destructive Nietzschean postmodernism, evident in figures such as Michael Foucault, that rejects any notion of classical humanism in favor of a heuristic of power relationships.
She claims in her conclusion to have done this, of course, via the insights of Michael Foucault.
Conclusive remarks are first given by Nicholas Jardine, who elaborates on the revival of the position advanced by Michael Foucault and Reinhart Koselleck that the end of European Enlightenment was due to a transformation in historical discourse and consciousness in the romantic period by shifting the interest of the learned public toward "inner histories" of life, Geist, and culture (p.
But in this thoughtful book the academic James Miller, author of The Passion of Michael Foucault, asks if, for all its omniscience, rock is actually still the cultural force it was in the 60s, when pop was a vital unifying force for a vibrant counter-culture.
Michael Foucault proposed that new lines of continuity within, rather than between, historical periods be studied in order to uncover the ruptures, discontinuities, and interruptions, which yield "discursive formations.
Carr, Michael Foucault, Dominick LaCapra, and others, where the constructed nature of the past and the centrality of interpretation to historiography have been so convincingly argued.