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Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languagesNative American languages,
languages of the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere and their descendants. A number of the Native American languages that were spoken at the time of the European arrival in the New World in the late 15th cent.
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). They inhabit Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, New Brunswick, Massachusetts, and Maine. French missionaries came into contact with them in the early 17th cent., and the Micmacs were allies of the French throughout the history of New France. Contact with Europeans did not have the usual effect of tribal disintegration, and the Micmacs still thrive, though their culture has changed radically. Many are Roman Catholics. The Micmacs are expert canoeists, and, although their economy once centered on fishing and hunting, they now derive their income primarily from agriculture. In 1990 there were over 15,000 Micmac in Canada. Another 2,700 Micmac live in the United States, the only federally recognized band being the Aroostook in Maine.


See W. D. and R. S. Wallis, The Micmac Indians of Eastern Canada (1955); J. F. Pratson, Land of the Four Directions (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
Micmacs (12A) is directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet whose previous works include the 2001 comedy Amelie.
Resume : Pretre seculier ayant oeuvre aupres des Micmacs entre 1735 et 1762, Pierre Maillard a d'abord retenu l'attention des historiens en raison du role determinant qu'il a joue dans le maintien de l'alliance franco-micmaque.
hereinafter Aroostook Band of Micmacs, Letter to EPA] (providing
29) In a petition to the colonial government in 1860, Francis Tomma, "Head Chief of the Micmacs," described the "Roman Catholic settlement on the east of the B'ras d'Or" as possessing "fields and houses, and flocks and herds.
Ces tresors, qui s'avereront plus tard n'etre que du quartz, ont cependant ete le moteur essentiel des voyages et ont occasionne les premieres rencontres de Cartier avec les Micmacs.
In 1989 the Province entered into conservation and safety agreements with the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs, the Native Council of Nova Scotia, and the Union of Nova Scotia Indians allowing Mi'kmaq to hunt moose based on sport licenses issued but not filled (Pulsifer and Nette 1995).
He needed these troops not only because of the obvious hostility of the Micmacs who were being incited to attack the settlement by the French, but also to maintain order among his own unruly settlers who were "inconceivably turbulent.
Also she was a founding chief of the Confederacy of Mainland Micmacs, and was for several years a board member of the UNSI.
Upton, "Indians and Islanders: The Micmacs in Colonial Prince Edward Island" (1976) 6:1 Acadiensis 21, focuses on the establishment of a Mi'kmaq reserve on Lennox Island, purchased for that purpose in 1870 by a philanthropic organization; D.
Ainsi Colomb (les doux Arawaks et les effrayants Cannibales), Cartier (les accueillants Micmacs et les Beothuks hostiles) Thevet-Lery (les allies Tupinambas et les ennemis Tupinikin), etc.
201) He went on to hold that the Treaty of 1752 was validly created by competent parties, that it contained a right to hunt which applied to the appellant's activities in question, and that the treaty had not been terminated by hostilities between the Micmacs and the British in 1753 or by extinguishment through occupancy by nonnatives under Crown grant or lease.
The reader may well sympathize with the general, especially when Anderson puts in a reminder about William Henry but says nothing about why British soldiers at Louisbourg are getting killed by Micmacs and Abenakis .