A) Fibronectin increases after nerve injury and binds to [alpha]5[beta]1 integrin on microglial cells
, resulting in the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3kinase (PI3K)-Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK-ERK) signaling cascades through the action of the tyrosine kinase Lyn.
After exposure to C20, animals had a significantly lower mean total microglial number than that in controls (T0; Figure 4), and the proportion of activated microglial cells
was significantly higher than in controls at T0 and T1, but it was comparable to controls by T56 (Figure 3).
Caption: In this 3-D reconstruction, a microglial cell
(red) engulfs synapses (green) in a mouse's hippocampus after an injection of the Alzheimer's-related protein amyloid-beta.
Lokensgard, "Herpes simplex virus induces neural oxidative damage via microglial cell
Toll-like receptor-2," Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol.
Cutting edge: TLR2-mediated proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production by microglial cells
in response to herpes simplex virus.
Moreover, as HIV-1 disease advances there is a reduction in CD4 + cells and there is a selection towards macrophage tropic isolates of HIV-1 that further infect the brain: essentially the brain cells that are of macrophage lineage namely the microglial cells
Neurotensin and the neurotensin receptor-3 in microglial cells
T cells and B cells in the CNS, reactivation by resident antigen presenting microglial cells
, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines along with generation of other inflammatory mediators.
In a recent study, fluoxetine was added to LPS-stimulated microglial cells
We knew that in embryonic development, some blood cells do go to the brain and become microglial cells
," said Chan.
, the nervous system's defenders, are unable to eliminate this substance, which forms deposits called senile plaques.
Reactions of astrocytes and microglial cells
around hematogenous metastases of the human brain.