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an instrument that makes possible delicate and accurate movements of microtools and the performance of complicated operations on cells under a microscope. It consists of a system of supports equipped with screws that grip microtools (needles, pipettes, and so on) and can move them in three planes. It may be controlled pneumatically, hydraulically, mechanically, or electrically. In 1912 the Russian scientist S. S. Chakhotin used a micromanipulator (micro-operator) that he constructed for strictly localized action of an ultraviolet light beam on a cell. In the 1960’s a micromanipulator was built that had a television device, a quartz monochromator, oscilloscopes, and electronic gear that made possible remote control of the instrument and the performance of particularly complicated operations on a cell. In the USSR a composite micromanipulator has been constructed that contains mechanical, pneumatic, and piezoelectric devices, which are used as required for the problem under study.
REFERENCESKhokhlov, A. M., V. I. Reshetnikov, and V. M. lachin. “Printsip postroeniia i opisanie komplekta mikromanipuliatora KM-1.” Tsitologiia, 1971, vol. 13, no. 4.
Kopac, M. J. “Micromanipulators: Principles of Design, Operation and Application.” In Physical Techniques in Biological Research, vol. 5. New York-London, 1964.
el-Badry, H. M. Micromanipulators and Micromanipulation. New York-Vienna, 1963.
S. IA. ZALKIND