Federated States of Micronesia

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Micronesia, Federated States of,

independent nation (2005 est. pop. 108,000), c.271 sq mi (702 sq km), an island group in the W Pacific Ocean. It comprises four states: KosraeKosrae,
island and state (1990 est. pop. 7,435), c.42 sq mi (110 sq km), Federated States of Micronesia. The easternmost island group of the Caroline Islands, Kosrae consist of a larger central island (Kosrae), several small islands, and a narrow fringing reef.
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, PohnpeiPohnpei
, state and island (1991 est. pop. 52,000), 129 sq mi (334 sq km), W Pacific, in the E Caroline Islands. It is one of four states comprising the Federated States of Micronesia.
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 (formerly Ponape), ChuukChuuk
or Truk
, state (1990 est. pop. 48,853), c.39 sq mi (100 sq km), Federated States of Micronesia, W Pacific, in the E Caroline Islands. One of four states comprising the Federated States of Micronesia, Chuuk consists of c.
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 (formerly Truk), and YapYap
, state (1990 pop. 10,886), c.47 sq mi (121 sq km), in the W Caroline Islands, W Pacific. One of four states comprising the Federated States of Micronesia, the island group was formerly part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
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. The capital, PalikirPalikir
, town (2000 est. pop. 8,600), capital of the Federated States of Micronesia. Located in a heavily wooded region in the NW part of the island of Pohnpei, it replaced Kolonia (about 6 mi/10 km to the east) as the capital of Micronesia in 1989.
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, is on the island of Pohnpei. The population is predominantly Micronesian and Christian. English is the official language; a number of Austronesian and Polynesian languages are also spoken.

The United States spent heavily in the islands in the 1990s, making financial assistance the primary source of income. Other mainstays of the economy are subsistence farming and fishing. Fish, clothing, bananas, and black pepper are exported and food and beverages, manufactured goods, and machinery are imported. The United States and Japan are the main trading partners.

The islands are governed under the constitution of 1979. The president, who is both head of state and head of government, is elected by Congress for a four-year term. There are 14 members of the unicameral Congress; four are popularly elected for four-year terms and 10 for two-year terms. Defense is the responsibility of the United States. Administratively the country is divided into four states.

Germany purchased the islands from Spain in 1898. They were occupied (1914) by Japan, which received them (1920) as a League of Nations mandate. During World War II, U.S. forces captured the islands, and in 1947 they became part of the U.S. Trust Territory of the Pacific IslandsPacific Islands, Trust Territory of the,
former UN trust territory administered by the United States, consisting of the Caroline Islands, Marshall Islands, and Mariana Islands (excluding Guam). The territory included c.
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. In 1979, as negotiations for termination of the trusteeship continued, they became self-governing as the Federated States of Micronesia. In 1986, they assumed free-association status with the United States; the economic and defense relationship with the United States was renewed for 20 years in 2004. Emmanuel Mori became president in 2007 and was reelected in 2011. Chuuk and Yap were devastated by a supertyphoon in 2015.