Middle East

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Middle East,

term traditionally applied by western Europeans to the countries of SW Asia and NE Africa lying W of Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India. Thus defined it includes Cyprus, the Asian part of Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, the West Bank and Gaza, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, the countries of the Arabian peninsula (Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait), and Egypt and Libya. The area was viewed as midway between Europe and East Asia (traditionally called the Far EastFar East,
in the most restricted sense, region comprising the countries of E Asia, namely China, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Mongolia, and Taiwan, and the easternmost portion of Russian Siberia (see Russian Far East).
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). The term is sometimes used in a cultural sense to mean the group of lands in that part of the world predominantly Islamic in culture, thus including the remaining states of N Africa as well as Afghanistan and Pakistan. In the 20th cent. the Middle East has been the scene of political turmoil and major warfare, including World War I, World War II, the Arab-Israeli WarsArab-Israeli Wars,
conflicts in 1948–49, 1956, 1967, 1973–74, and 1982 between Israel and the Arab states. Tensions between Israel and the Arabs have been complicated and heightened by the political, strategic, and economic interests in the area of the great powers.
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, the Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
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 and the Persian Gulf WarsPersian Gulf Wars,
two conflicts involving Iraq and U.S.-led coalitions in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

The First Persian Gulf War, also known as the Gulf War, Jan.–Feb.
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.

Middle East

 

the conventional name for the area of Western Asia between Europe and Pakistan. On occasion, especially in English and American literature, the term “Middle East” is interchangeable with the term “Near East.” More often, however, it refers to the countries of the Near East together with Iran and Afghanistan. For the most part, therefore, “Middle East” is not used by itself but as part of the term “Near and Middle East.”

Middle East

1. (loosely) the area around the E Mediterranean, esp Israel and the Arab countries from Turkey to North Africa and eastwards to Iran
2. (formerly) the area extending from the Tigris and Euphrates to Myanmar
References in periodicals archive ?
6 million, a one per cent decline from the first nine months of 2014, and accounting for 37 per cent of the overall Middle Eastern investment banking fee pool, the highest first nine month share since records began in 1980.
While over 40 percent of respondents believe that Turkey's proactive foreign policy has failed due to external factors, a little over 25 percent of the Middle Eastern elites argue that Turkey's Middle East policy failed after the Arab Spring.
The Middle Eastern learning management systems market is segmented and forecast on the basis of customers into K-12 and higher education.
Compared to the same period in 2014, Middle Eastern ECM (equity capital markets) increased 179 per cent and marked the best first quarter by proceeds raised since 2008.
The value of M&A deals with any Middle Eastern involvement more than doubled year-on-year to $9.
Nadim Najjar, managing director for the Mena at Thomson Reuters, said: "The value of announced M&A transactions with any Middle Eastern involvement reached $9.
CBRE recently released a report entitled In and Out: Middle East, which reviewed capital flows into, and out of, the Middle Eastern commercial real estate market.
He was reportedly inspired by Claudia Roden's Book of Middle Eastern Food.
Global real estate markets have seen significant inflow of Middle Eastern capital with $ 45 billion invested between 2007 and the end of 2013 -- seven times the reported activity in its home market.
Global real estate markets have seen significant inflow of Middle Eastern capital with $45bn invested between 2007 and the end of 2013 - seven times the reported activity in its home market, said the report.
During the period, the Middle Eastern investment banking fees surged 22 per cent to hit $535.
Russell Haworth, managing director, Middle East & North Africa at Thomson Reuters, said: "The value of announced M&A [mergers and acquisition] transactions with Middle Eastern targets reached $14.

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