Miguel

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Miguel

(mēgĕl`), 1802–66, Portuguese prince; son of John IVJohn IV,
1604–56, king of Portugal (1640–56). He succeeded as duke of Braganza in 1630. Descended from Manuel I and in illegitimate line from John I, he had the strongest claim to the Portuguese throne when a revolution was planned to cast off the rule of Philip IV
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 of Portugal and younger brother of Pedro IPedro I
(Dom Pedro de Alcântara) , 1798–1834, first emperor of Brazil (1822–31); son of John VI of Portugal. Dom Pedro was a child when the Portuguese royal family, fleeing from Napoleon's conquering French army, left Portugal for Brazil.
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 of Brazil. He led an unsuccessful revolt against his father in 1824. On John's death (1826) the Portuguese succession was in dispute. The liberals supported Pedro, who was in fact recognized as King Peter IV, but the reactionary absolutists favored Miguel for the throne. Pedro abdicated in favor of his daughter, Maria IIMaria II
(Maria da Glória), 1819–53, queen of Portugal (1834–53), daughter of Peter IV (Pedro I of Brazil). Pedro, having succeeded to the Portuguese throne on the death (1826) of his father, John VI, granted a constitutional charter to the Portuguese and then
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, and betrothed her to Miguel, who agreed to act as regent for her under a constitutional charter issued by Pedro. Miguel accepted this arrangement, but immediately upon taking power he convened (1828) a nonconstitutional Cortes and took the crown it offered him. The liberal leaders gathered forces and established themselves in the Azores. Pedro joined them in 1832, and they sailed to Oporto. There Miguel besieged them until an English sea force in the employ of the liberals destroyed (1833) his fleet. By 1834 his cause was lost, and he agreed to leave Portugal. He later denounced his capitulation, and although he himself took no part, there were several attempted Miguelist risings during Maria's reign.