one of the primary forms of combat training for troops and naval forces, commanders, and the staffs of large units and units of the armed forces, combat arms, rear services units, and special forces. The goal of a military exercise is to solve one or more problems in a given location under conditions that most closely resemble actual combat.
Military exercises may be classified as strategic, operational, or tactical, depending on their scope. They may be designed to train troops of the army, air force, or navy, as well as personnel on the command, staff command, staff, or rear services level, or they may be classified as special or test exercises, depending on how they are conducted. Other classifications include single-level, two-level, or multilevel, referring to the number of command echelons participating, and one-sided and two-sided, depending on whether opposing forces are participating. Large units of troops and naval forces from one or several countries may take part in strategic and operational exercises.
Large-scale military exercises conducted during the 1970’s by the armed forces of the USSR included those designated under the code names Dniepr (1967), Dvina (1970), and Ocean (1970). The troops of the united armed forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization have held military exercises under the code names Vltava (1960), October Storm (1965), and Brotherhood in Arms (1970). The united armed forces of the NATO countries conduct large-scale military exercises every two or three years, for example, the Winter, Express, and Reforger exercises.