(1) Agencies of military administration directly in charge of the leadership of combat arms and services and of the examination and control of the troops upon instruction from higher agencies.
Military inspections were created in Russia by Peter I for checking on conditions of unit administration, services, and material supply of the troops. They were later supplemented by inspections of combat arms and branches of the military and logistic administration, some of which were headed by inspectors general subordinate to the minister of war or to the chief of Main Headquarters. In 1796–1809, Russia had 14 military inspections that fulfilled the functions of military districts. In the 19th century the war and navy ministries had inspection departments (in charge of recruitment and other matters), which were later incorporated into the Main Headquarters and the Main Naval Headquarters. In 1905 the Russian Army insitituted the posts of inspectors general in the central military directorate, which became subordinate to the minister of war in 1909–10. The capitalist armies have military inspection agencies and inspectors general, sometimes wielding great power, which are part of the apparatus of the higher military administration. In the Soviet armed forces the military inspection agencies exercise control over the state of combat training, armament, military equipment, and the logistic management of troops.
(2) A method of the administration of troops through periodic inspection carried out by specially appointed persons (commissions or groups).
I. I. ANDRONOV