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periodical publications intended mainly for the military reader. The military press is an important means for the political, military, and cultural education of the personnel of the armed forces and for the propagation of military knowledge.
The first printed newspaper in Russia was Vedomosti o voennykh i inykh delakh, dostoinykh znaniia i pamiati sluchivshikhsia v Moskovskom gosudarstve i vo inykh okrestnykh stranakh … (Moscow-St. Petersburg, 1703-27). The military press proper in Russia began with the publication of Morskie zapiski Hi sobraniia vsiakogo roda kasaiushchiesia voobshche do moreplavaniia sochinenii i perevodov (St. Petersburg, 1800-07) and Artilleriiskii zhurnal (St. Petersburg-Petrograd, 1808-1920). Many other periodical publications began to appear later. In 1911 seven military science journals and 65 specialized journals and collections on military questions were published in Russia.
During the Revolution of 1905-07 the Bolshevik military press was born. The majority of these publications were issued illegally, including Kazarma (St. Petersburg, 1906-07) and Soldatskaia zhizn’ (Moscow, 1906-07). There were 2’ soldiers’ newspapers in all. Brochures were also published The experience of publishing these newspapers and brochures was used during the preparation for the Great October Socialist Revolution. The most well-known newspaper in 1917 was Soldatskaia pravda (Petrograd, 1917-18); a total of 15 soldiers’ newspapers were published on the eve of the October Armed Uprising.
During the Civil War and military intervention of 1918-20 the Soviet military press, in addition to dealing with military problems, was used to explain the political goals of the war and the Leninist ideas about the defense of the socialist fatherland to the population and army. In Moscow and Petrograd the military newspapers published included Armiia i flot Rabochei i Krest’ianskoi Rossii (Petrograd, 1917-18), Izvestiia Narodnogo Komissariata po voennym delam (Moscow, 1918-22), and Krasnaia Armiia (Moscow, 1918). The troops and navy published front, army, navy, and division newspapers, leaflets, and brochures. The military section of the publishing house of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the publishing section of the cultural and educational department of the All-Russian Bureau of Military Commissars, the publishing houses of the Central Administration of Military Educational Institutions, the Section for Universal Military Training, and the All-Russian Central Press Administration were all occupied with the publication of literature for the Red Army. In 1919, for the unification of the publishing houses serving the Red Army, the literature publishing section was instituted in the political administration of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic. In November 1921 the Supreme Military-Editing Council was established for the centralization and control of publishing. In 1921, 16 military journals were centrally published, and more than 100 newspapers and journals were published in the districts. In 1924 the central military newspaper Krasnaia zvezda began publication. The State Military Publishing House was established in 1924; it was later reorganized as the military section of the State Publishing House. New central journals and newspapers began to be published in the 1930’s. In 1930 the military section of the State Publishing House of the RSFSR was reorganized as the Military Publishing House within the system of the Association of State Publishing Houses of the RSFSR, and since 1936 it has been known as the Military Publishing House of the People’s Commissariat of Defense of the USSR. During the Great Patriotic War (1941-45) publishing that was necessary for the front continued to develop. Military councils of fronts and armies and the political sections of large units published newspapers for soldiers, including newspapers in the languages of peoples of the USSR.
In 1971, 15 central military journals were published in the USSR, and among them are military-political and literary-artistic journals, such as Kommunist Vooruzhennykh Sil (Moscow, 1920—), Sovetskoe voennoe obozrenie (in English and French; Moscow, 1965—), Bloknot agitator a (Moscow, 1942—), Starshina—Serzhant (Moscow, 1960—), and Sovetskii voin (Moscow, 1919—); journals of the various combat arms and armed services, among which are Voennyi vestnik (Moscow, 1921—), Aviatsiia i kosmonavtika (Moscow, 1918—), Vestnik rotivovosdushnoi oborony (Moscow, 1931—), Morskoi sbornik (Leningrad, 1848—), Tyl i snabzhenie Sovetskikh Vooruzhennykh Sil (Moscow, 1940—), Voenno-meditsinskii zhurnal (Moscow, 1823—); the journal Tekhnika: vooruzhenie (Moscow, 1932—), and Voennoistoricheskii zhurnal (Moscow, 1959—). In addition to the central newspaper Krasnaia zvezda, newspapers for districts, fleets, and air defense districts are published, as are newspapers for Soviet troops temporarily stationed in socialist countries that are participants in the Warsaw Treaty Organization of 1955.
In 1969 the socialist countries published in the Bulgarian People’s Army the newspaper Narodna armiia (Sofia, 1945—), the journals Armeiskii Komunist (Sofia, 1949—), Armeiski pregled (Sofia, 1954—), Bolgarski voin (Sofia, 1952—), and others; in the Hungarian People’s Army the illustrated newspaper Nephadsereg (Budapest, 1948—), the journals Honvedsegi szemle (Budapest, 1947—), Honvedelem (Budapest, 1950—), Hadtortenelmi kozlemenyek (Budapest, 1954—), and others; in the National People’s Army of the German Democratic Republic the newspaper Volksarmee (Berlin, 1956—), the journals Armee-Rundschau (Berlin, 1956—), Militärwesen (Berlin, 1957—), Militärtechnik (Berlin, 1961—), and others; in the Polish forces the newspaper Żobiierz wolnosci (Warsaw, 1950—), the journals Żotnierz Polski (Warsaw, 1945—), Wojisko Ludowe (Warsaw, 1947—), Myśl wojskowa (Warsaw, 1950—), and others; in the Rumanian People’s Army the newspaper Apărarea patriei (Bucharest, 1945—), the journals Munca politica in Fortele armate ale Republicii socialiste România (Bucharest, 1948—), Viata militară (Bucharest, 1948—), and others; in the Czechoslovak People’s Army the newspaper Obrana lidu (Prague, 1947—), the journal Československý voják (Prague, 1952—), and others. In several socialist countries district newspapers for soldiers and journals for the various armed services (combat arms) are published.
The military press in the capitalist countries is one of the most important means for the ideological indoctrination in the interests of the bourgeoisie of servicemen, reservists, and youth. In the USA in 1969 more than 1,000 various military periodicals were published, including thick daily newspapers and weeklies such as Stars and Stripes, (1942—; editions presently published in five cities, including Darmstadt and Tokyo), Overseas Weekly (Frankfurt am Main-London, 1950—), Army Times (Washington, D.C., 1940—), the journals Military Review (Fort Leavenworth, 1922—), Army Digest (Washington, D.C., 1946—), Airman (Washington, D.C., 1957—), and others. Published in Great Britain are the journals Journal of the Royal United Service Institution (London, 1857—), Army Quarterly (London, 1829—), Soldier (London, 1945—), Navy (London, 1895—), and others; there are newspapers for the large units and commands. Published in France are the journals Revue de défense nationale (Paris, 1939—), L’Armée (Paris, 1960—), Revue maritime (Paris, 1860—), and others. Published in the Federal Republic of Germany are the journals Wehrkunde (Munich, 1952—), Truppenpraxis (Darmstadt, 1956—), Die Bundeswehr (Bonn, 1956—), Kampftruppen (Cologne, 1959—), and others; there are newspapers for the various large units and commands. NATO publishes the journals NATO Letter (Paris, 1953—), NATO’s Fifteen Nations (Amsterdam, 1956—), among others.
I. V. KOROTKOV and A. M. SHEVCHENKO