Military Training For Civilians

Military Training For Civilians

 

a part of the system for military training of the population conducted outside of the army. It is used in most states. Military training for civilians became widespread with the emergence of mass armies, the reduction of the term of active military service, and the increased needs of armies of replacements for various types of military specialists with noncommissioned and officer rank in times of peace and war.

In the USSR, military training for civilians is regulated by the Law on Universal Military Obligation adopted by the third session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR on Oct. 12, 1967, and by resolutions of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. It includes basic military training for young men of predraft and draft age, the training of specialists for the USSR armed forces from among young people of draft age, military training for students in civilian higher or specialized secondary educational institutions, and officers studies for reserve officers. Basic military training of students, including civilian defense training, is conducted in general-education schools (beginning in the ninth grade), in specialized secondary educational institutions, and in the educational institutions within the vocational and technical education system. Young men who do not attend day (regular) educational institutions receive basic military training (without interrupting their work) at training centers set up at enterprises, in institutions and organizations, and on kolkhozes. The training of specialists for the armed forces is conducted every year at the training organizations of the Voluntary Society for Assistance to the Army, Air Force, and Navy (DOSAAF) and educational institutions within the vocational and technical education system. Young men who have reached the age of 17 enter (with or without interruption of their work) this training. Basic military training and the training of specialists are conducted according to programs determined by the USSR Ministry of Defense. The basic military training of students of civilian higher and specialized secondary institutions is conducted at the military subdepartments (in groups) of these educational institutions. Upon completing the training, those who have successfully passed the established training course are conferred junior reserve officer ranks. Officers studies for reserve officers are conducted in cities without interruption of work and in rural areas with an interruption of work. The studies are organized by garrison commanders and by military commissariats.

A. A. NOVGORODOV

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