Military Intelligence

(redirected from Military espionage)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

Military Intelligence

 

the totality of measures taken by the military command on all levels to collect information concerning the state, activity, and intentions of enemy troops, as well as the terrain, radiation and chemical conditions, and other information necessary to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the situation and to make correct decisions.

The development of the equipment and methods of military intelligence is closely related to changes in the methods of warfare and military operations. With the refinement of the latter, military intelligence has continuously increased in importance. Before the 19th century, when battlefields and armies were relatively limited in size, the commander could personally observe the enemy and evaluate their activity. Intelligence at that time consisted mainly of sending agents before the battle behind enemy lines to determine the intentions and strength of the enemy. In the 19th century the use of mass armies, the increase in the scale of combat, and the changes in the nature of warfare greatly expanded the functions of military intelligence. As a result, military intelligence became a constant necessity, enabling the commander in chief or a commander to make well-timed and correct decisions and to implement them. The appearance of nuclear arms, missiles, and space weapons, the development of conventional weapons, and the increased technology available to ground and naval forces still further expanded the missions of military intelligence; and its importance in general combat, specific operations, or the war as a whole increased immeasurably.

Military intelligence is obtained by means of airplanes; submarines; surface vessels; radar; radio-interception and direction-finding equipment; optical, illumination, sonar, magnetic, and thermal devices; photographic and television apparatus; infrared equipment; indicators and measurement instruments for radiation, chemical, and bacteriological intelligence; and, in foreign armies, weather and reconnaissance satellites and drones. Depending on the scope of the mission, intelligence is classified as strategic, operational, and tactical.

Strategic intelligence is conducted constantly in peacetime and in war. It is organized by a higher command to obtain information on the economic war potential of a probable enemy and on their plans and intentions, as well as information necessary to prepare the country for defense and for war and strategic operations. The most important function of strategic intelligence is the study of the enemy’s forces (composition, armament, disposition, training, and state of military science and equipment), the economic and morale capabilities of the enemy country or countries, and the preparation and organization of military theaters.

Operational intelligence is organized by the commanders and staffs of operational commands of the armed services to obtain the information on the enemy and on the military theater necessary to conduct successful operations and to employ most effectively all the combat arms. The most important missions of operational intelligence are (1) the disclosure of the designs and plans of the enemy and of the composition, disposition, and activity of the main enemy groupings in the zone of action of the commands and on the flanks and (2) the discovery of new methods of enemy warfare.

Tactical intelligence is organized by the commanders and staffs of units of all sizes in order to correctly plan and successfully wage combat. The chief missions of tactical intelligence are to ascertain the composition, armament, morale, type of activity, and groupings of the opposing enemy forces and to discover their intentions. All combat arms participate in carrying out these missions. The intelligence agencies of the staffs of the commands and larger units closely direct the activity of reconnaissance subunits and plan the gathering of intelligence. The commanders and staffs report the information on the enemy, terrain, and so forth to the superior staff and communicate it to subordinate commanders and staffs as well as to the staffs of adjacent units.

Depending on the mission, the forces, and the methods used to obtain intelligence information, intelligence may be divided into such major categories as agent, special, space, aerial, radio, radio-engineering, radar, naval, army, artillery, radiation, chemical, bacteriological, and engineer intelligence.

Space intelligence in foreign armies is carried out with the help of reconnaissance and weather satellites. It is strategic and operational in scope. Space intelligence makes it possible to survey large land and sea areas in a short time, detect the launching of land- and sea-based missiles, and transmit the information to intelligence-collection points on the ground. Space intelligence uses survey photography for large areas and detail photography to obtain small-scale pictures, making it possible to detect small stationary and moving targets. Satellites equipped with radio and electronic reconnaissance devices can detect the location of ground radio and radar stations.

Aerial intelligence is conducted by means of special piloted airplanes and helicopters that are included in the armament of the air force, navy, and ground troops. In addition, it is carried out by all aviation categories in the course of their basic combat missions. Aerial intelligence employs visual observation, aerial photography, and a variety of special instruments.

Naval intelligence is conducted by the submarine and surface forces of the navy by means of various technical instruments for observation, interception, and direction finding. In their intelligence operations foreign navies widely use reconnaissance-diversionary and reconnaissance-diver subunits.

Army intelligence is conducted by units of all sizes and of all combat arms of the ground forces, including motorized rifle, armor, and artillery troops, as well as by special forces and services, such as engineer and chemical troops. Army intelligence obtains important information by questioning prisoners, deserters, and local inhabitants. An important part of army intelligence is reconnaissance in force, or the action of reconnaissance subunits to capture prisoners, documents, and specimens of weapons and military equipment. The struggle against certain types of enemy intelligence—mainly agent intelligence—is conducted by counterintelligence.

The successful fulfillment of armed forces intelligence missions in all types of combat activity is achieved through close coordination of all the means and methods of intelligence, thorough organization, and prompt study of the information obtained.

S. N. PATRIKEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
As part of a recent investigation, overseen by yzmir deputy Chief Public Prosecutor's Office Okan Bato, detention warrants have been issued for 57 individuals including governors and former police chiefs who took part in the military espionage investigation.
Although there are now efforts by the government to show the military espionage trial as a conspiracy, the government actually knew of every step of the investigation, which was launched by the yzmir Chief Public Prosecutor's Office in 2011 into a military spy ring, whose members were accused of obtaining classified military information to sell to third parties.
During the investigation into the military espionage gang, officials at the National Police Department made a presentation about this gang to then-Deputy Prime Minister BE-lent Arync.
Then-Deputy Prime Minister BE-lent Arync said during an interview in 2013 that he was examining documents seized by police as part of an operation against a military espionage gang and that he was considering becoming a co-plaintiff in the case against the gang.
The nine policemen, who carried our military espionage and yzmir port corruption raids, were freed after their lawyers objected to the 10th yzmir High Criminal Court.
Lawyer KE-cE-k also described the anti-police operation as a "revenge" for the tender-rigging investigation in yzmir as well as the investigation of the military espionage ring.
Arync told reporters in January 2013 that he was examining documents seized by police as part of an operation against a military espionage gang and that he may consider becoming a co-plaintiff in the case against the gang.
A report prepared by a group of experts and sent to an yzmir court in 2012 suggested that the military espionage gang planned to down Turkish military planes.
According to the indictment in the case, which was accepted by the court last year, a military espionage gang obtained classified state and military information to sell to third parties and had infiltrated several state institutions to secure easier access to that information.
The journalist is currently undergoing an investigation on charges of acquiring confidential documents crucial to state security, revealing information that is forbidden to announce and political and military espionage.
Baransu now faces charges of acquiring confidential documents crucial to state security, unveiling information that is forbidden to announce and political and military espionage.
Baransu now faces charges of acquiring confidential documents crucial to state security, revealing state secrets and political and military espionage.

Full browser ?