Mimamsa


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Related to Mimamsa: Uttara Mimamsa

Mimamsa

 

one of the six traditional schools of Hindu philosophy that deals with the interpretation of the Vedas. It is also called Karma Mimamsa (the Mimamsa of action) and Purva Mimamsa (the first Mimamsa), as distinguished from Uttara Mimamsa, or Vedanta. The founder of Mimamsa is considered to be Jaimini, who lived between the fourth century B.C. and the second century of the Common Era. Jaimini expounded the ideas of Mimamsa in the form of sutras.

The practical aspect of Mimamsa was formulated for the purpose of ordering the complex Vedic ritual. The theoretical problems of Mimamsa arose during the codification of the Vedic texts as the supreme religious authority of Hinduism. These problems dealt with the formal verification and semantic interpretation of the Vedic formulas (mantras), the definition of language norms, and the correlation of Vedic utterances with ritual procedures. For this reason, social philosophy and the philosophy of language were of major importance. In both instances, Mimamsa doctrine developed from an extreme ontological realism. The doctrine asserts the eternalness and uncreatedness of the Vedas and declares changes in the world of things impossible, since all things are only derivatives of the eternal models of Vedic actions. The absence of the problem of the creation and destruction of the world led Mimamsa to deny the necessity of god. Nevertheless, sacrifices should be made to the gods for the preservation of traditional social harmony.

The problem of liberation (moksa), cardinal for Indian philosophical ethics, has no real social significance for Mimamsa. Proceeding from an absolute understanding of ritual norms, Prabhakara (seventh century) formulated a doctrine of the foundations of social existence that anticipated I. Kant’s categorical imperative. The Mimamsa theory of cognition provides a de-tailed treatment of the problems of dogmatic justification of the truth and elaborates methods of using authoritative testimony as the source of truth.

The ontological realism of Mimamsa in its approach to the philosophy of language made it possible for Kumarila Bhatta (seventh century) to develop a linguistic theory in which different levels of linguistic structure and speech behavior were distinguished. In the field of logic, the followers of Mimamsa (particularly Prasastapada, sixth to seventh centuries) contributed to the realistic theory of relations later developed in Nyaya.

Denying the necessity for religious liberation and asceticism, Mimamsa affirms the positive ideal of an active life in society ( Grhastha-dharma). Mimamsa, along with Vedanta, contributed to the formation of the social system of Hinduism, where rigid adherence to a ritual norm coexists with the broadest dogmatic tolerance.

REFERENCES

Edgerton, F. Mimamsa Nyaya Prakasa of Apadevi. Oxford, 1941.
Jha, G. The Purva Mimamsa Sutras of Jaimini Allahabad, 1910.
Keith, A. B. The Karma Mimamsa. Calcutta, 1921.
Sastri, P. Introduction to Purva Mimamsa. Calcutta, 1923.
References in periodicals archive ?
Among the orthodox Hindu philosophical schools, Vedanta and Mimamsa seem the preferred ones.
If one moves back to the pre-Vedanta period of the Mimamsa school of exegesis, the idea of textual dependence becomes so textualized that it threatens to swallow up human concerns altogether.
is an authority on the Purva (Early) Mimamsa Vedanta, a school of ritual exegesis preceding the Advaita Vedanta, one form of the Uttara (Later) Mimamsa.
This period saw the increasing "bhaktification" of Advaita Vedanta and Mimamsa, as major thinkers in Varanasi such as Madhusudana Sarasvati and Apadeva sought to demonstrate the compatibility of their respective knowledge-systems with the Vaisnava devotionalism that had become so prevalent in North India.
The Satyasasanapariksa (SP) is an independent work by Vidyanandin, the original plan of which was an investigation (pariksa) of fourteen teachings (sasanas) for their truth (satya), but the version we have goes only up to the incomplete twelfth teaching (of the Prabhakara Mimamsa school).
The ethical dimension comes to the fore in chapter 2, where Davis takes up the contribution of the Mimamsa system of Vedic ritual hermeneutics to dharmasastra.
Using Mimamsa concepts, Bhatta Nayaka (tenth century) solidly rejected both Lollata's and Sankuka's models of rasa production, arguing instead for the existence of an underlying process of bhavana ('production') located in the mind of the spectator and through which rasa is experienced (Pollock 2010: 154-55).
The mutual influence between these two genres (heavier perhaps on the mimamsa influence over dharmasastra) is clear, yet no one mistakes one for the other and, as Lawrence McCrea ("Hindu Jurisprudence and Scriptural Hermeneutics," in Hinduism and Law: An Introduction, ed.
If we may extrapolate from the account Abhinava himself gives of Nayaka's otherwise forgotten work, it would seem that the latter s theories of "generalization," based on Mimamsa models, though acceptable, did not get at the "heart" of the problem.
Scharf, The Denotation of Generic Terms in Ancient Indian Philosophy: Grammar, Nyaya, and Mimamsa (Philadelphia, 1996), 30-35.
Additional arguments involving Mimamsa points of view, including those of the Prabhakaras, are then summarized, ending (64) with the final view (siddhantah) accepted by Naiyayikas.