Ming

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Ming

(mĭng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644. The first Ming emperor, Chu Yüan-chang (ruled 1368–98), a former Buddhist monk, joined a rebellion in progress, gained control of it, overthrew the Mongol YüanYüan
, Mongol dynasty of China that ruled from 1271 to 1368. It was a division of the great empire conquered by the Mongols. Kublai Khan, who adopted the Chinese dynastic name Yüan in 1271, swept down from N China, which the Mongols had ruled since the 1230s, and
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 dynasty, and unified all of China proper. He set up a strong, centralized government and carried out economic recovery programs. He abolished the office of prime minister, thereby strengthening the autocratic power of the emperor. The emperor Yung Lo (reigned 1402–24) moved (1421) the capital from Nanjing to Beijing, which developed into a magnificent city. The dynasty, which never created a viable taxation policy, always had fiscal problems. Seven great naval expeditions, under the command of the Grand Eunuch Cheng Ho, were sent at considerable cost to SE Asia, India, the Persian Gulf, and E Africa for tribute and trade (1405–33). These voyages ceased in 1433 and never resumed. Christian missionaries penetrated the Chinese hinterlands, and Europeans, such as Matteo RicciRicci, Matteo
, 1552–1610, Italian missionary to China. He entered the Society of Jesus, and in Rome he studied under Clavius. Ricci was sent to the Indies (1578), and he worked at Goa and Cochin until 1582, when he was called to Macao to enter China.
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, brought Western ideas to the Ming court. The Ming was generally a period of stability and prosperity. There were notable achievements in literature, philosophy, and the arts. Wang Yang-ming (1472–1529), the great Ming neo-Confucian philosopher, developed an activist approach to moral training and self-cultivation. The huge Yung-lo Encyclopedia (Yung-lo ta-tien), which included all major works in Confucian classics, history, philosophy, and miscellaneous subjects, was compiled in the early 15th cent. Four great novels, The Romance of the Three Kingdoms, The Water Margin (All Men Are Brothers), Journey to the West, and The Golden Lotus, were written in this period. Drama in the Southern style, painting, and architecture reached great heights. The delicate monochromatic porcelain of the Ming period is often considered the finest achievement of Chinese ceramics. Incompetent emperors, oppressive taxation, and factionalism in government in the later years of the dynasty incited revolts among peasants in the border regions and prepared the way for the Manchu conquest of China (see Ch'ingCh'ing
or Manchu
, the last of the Imperial dynasties of China. Background

The Ch'ing dynasty was established by the Manchus, who invaded China and captured Beijing in 1644, and lasted until 1911.
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).

Bibliography

See R. Huang, 1587: A Year of No Significance (1981); F. F. Mote and D. Twitchett, ed., The Cambridge History of China (Vol. 7, 1988).

Ming

 

Chinese imperial dynasty (1368–1644). Founded by Chu Yuan-chang upon the overthrow of the Mongol Yuan dynasty.

In the early 15th century, the Ming dynasty pursued a course of external expansion. In 1407, Chinese troops seized Vietnam. Seven naval expeditions under the command of Cheng Ho were dispatched to regions of the South Seas and the Indian Ocean. As a result of attempts by the Portuguese to establish themselves in China, the Ming emperor Wu Tsung in 1521 forbade Europeans entry to China and closed all ports to them, with the exception of Aomen (Macao).

The aggravation of social contradictions and the growth of class struggle under the Ming dynasty led to a peasant war in the 1620’s. The rebels, led by Li Tzu-ch’eng, took possession of the capital in Peking in 1644 and overthrew the Ming dynasty. A portion of China’s feudal nobility went over to the side of the Manchus, who were at that time invading China, and aided them in crushing the peasant rebellion and in establishing the Manchurian Ch’ing dynasty in China.

Toward the end of Ming rule, the first contacts between Russia and China were established, including the dispatch of I. Petlin to Peking by the Tobol’sk voevoda (military governor) in 1618.

N. I. SVISTUNOVA

Ming

1. the imperial dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644
2. of or relating to Chinese porcelain produced during the Ming dynasty, characterized by the use of brilliant colours and a fine-quality body
References in periodicals archive ?
Phoenix and Birds, on this month's cover, exhibits many of the qualities of Ming dynasty silk scroll painting.
The restoration of the Imperial Temple of the Emperors, which doubled as a royal residence during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) and subsequent Qing Dynasty (1644-1911), was completed last Friday, said Beijing Municipal Bureau of Tourism promotions staff member Yu Jun.
Tourists to Datong in China have new reasons to visit the city because of the restored Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) City Wall and Huayan Temple that have become tourism hot spots for the area.
The earliest historical record of Diaoyu Islands can be dated back to China's Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) in a book titled 'Departure Along the Wind' (published in 1403), in which the names of 'Diaoyu Islet' and 'Chiwei Islet' were used.
Now the Ming dynasty pottery has gone under the hammer - and sold for pounds 3,600.
The jar or small vase, of a slightly darker shade of green, is around 100 years younger, dating to the early Ming Dynasty.
Instant expert MOST people have heard of Ming Dynasty vases - they are famed for their incredible value and rarity.
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In seven chapters as many scholars describe as many empires: the Mongols (1206-1405), China under the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), the Khmer (802-1566), the Ottomans (1281-1922), the Safavids (1501-1722), India under the Mughals (1526-1858), and Japan after the Meiji restoration (1868-1945).
The former pupil at Red House School in Norton has just completed an epic feat by hiking over 6,000km during a 601-day trek of the Ming Dynasty Great Wall.
The Great Wall was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).