examination

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examination

1. Education
a. written exercises, oral questions, or practical tasks, set to test a candidate's knowledge and skill
b. (as modifier): an examination paper
2. Med
a. physical inspection of a patient or parts of his body, in order to verify health or diagnose disease
b. laboratory study of secretory or excretory products, tissue samples, etc., esp in order to diagnose disease
3. Law the formal interrogation of a person on oath, esp of an accused or a witness

Examination

 

(Russian, ekzamen), in the USSR, a comprehensive survey of the knowledge of a student or of a person graduating from or entering an educational institution. Unlike tests (zachety), examinations—both oral and written—are always graded.

After the October Revolution of 1917 the system of examinations that existed in Russia was abolished. The following examinations were made compulsory in the 1930’s: annual promotion examinations in general-education schools, beginning in fourth grade; admission, or entrance, examinations for higher and specialized secondary educational institutions; and semester final and state graduation examinations in higher and specialized secondary educational institutions.

In 1944 graduation examinations were instituted for students of incomplete secondary and secondary schools. According to the Statute on the Secondary General-Education School of 1970, the procedure for administering examinations in secondary general-education schools is determined by the ministries of education (or public education) of the Union republics. Compulsory graduation examinations are given in the eighth and 10th (or 11th) grades. Students who pass them receive a certificate of completion of an eight-year school or a certificate of secondary education. Promotion examinations may be instituted for the fourth through seventh grades and the ninth (or 10th) grade by the ministry of education (or public education) of a Union republic. There may be no more than three such examinations per grade. The certificate of completion of an eight-year school and the certificate of secondary education may also be received through the system of extramural education.

In higher and specialized secondary educational institutions, the time and procedure for administering competitive entrance examinations, semester finals, and state graduation examinations are determined by the Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education of the USSR according to the type of school. Students who have passed all tests are permitted to take the semester final examinations, and students who have passed all the semester finals may take the graduation examinations.

At many institutions of higher learning and at many technicums, defense of a diploma project or diploma thesis replaces state examinations in special disciplines. Vocational-technical schools and vocational courses give qualifying examinations for certain ratings, or ranks, in various lines of work. In addition to qualifying examinations, secondary vocational-technical schools also give graduation examinations in general-education subjects.

REFERENCE

Narodnoe obrazovanie v SSSR: Obshcheobrazovatel’naia shkola: Sb.dokumentov 1917–1973. Moscow, 1974. Pages 161–64, 170–72, 228–35,420–36.

F. I. PUZYREV

What does it mean when you dream about an examination?

Dreaming about taking a test could indicate that the dreamer has a fear of failure. Alternatively, such a dream could indicate that a specific issue of great importance to the dreamer reminds them of being in school. “Passing the test” can also be a metaphor for successfully concluding any number of different activities.

References in periodicals archive ?
Sample of Mini-Mental State Examination Data Found in 10 Studies of Patients with Stroke Wagner, Folstein Mysiw & Mann Grace et al.
Nor were there significant differences between the groups on secondary endpoints, such as mood; motor function; activities of daily living; and specific cognitive domains, such as memory, attention, and language, as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Clinical Dementia Rating scale.
All of the study patients scored between 5 and 13 on the Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE), which ranges in score from 0 to 30; higher scores indicate better cognitive function.
General and specific diagnostic instruments can be helpful in this population, such as the Mini-Mental State Examination or the Mini-Mental Parkinson.
Participants in the study included 204 patients with AD between the ages of 74 and 79, whose conditions were stable while receiving acetylcholine esterase inhibitor treatment and who had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score of 15 points or more.
As measured by the standardized Mini-Mental State Examination, mean cognitive improvement was significantly greater after 12 weeks of treatment for the women who had ERT plus donepezil than for those who had donepezil alone.
They used the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (maximum score, 100) to measure global cognitive function, and other tests to measure performance in the domains of memory, executive function, and language.
Three tests were used to evaluate cognitive function: the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which assessed orientation, attention, calcula-tion, and recall (a score of 24 or less indicated poor cognitive function); the Trail-Making Test B, which gauged executive function (a score of 132 seconds or more indicated poor function); and a category fluency test that asked participants to name as many animals as they could in 1 minute (a score of 12 or less indicated poor function).
Then researchers evaluated cognitive function by using the Mini-Mental State Examination, which has a maximum score of 30 points.
Most commonly used is the Mini-Mental State Examination, which has been documented as an effective screening tool for dementia.
To determine personality types, the team interviewed a knowledgeable informant and used the Mini-Mental State Examination and the NEO Personality Inventory.
Obisesan, chief of geriatrics at Howard University, Washington, used data from the 1988-1994 National Health and Nutrition Survey to study 1,799 subjects aged 60 years and older who had full data on aerobic activity, shortened Mini-Mental State Examination (sMMSE) scores, and ApoE4 genotype.