minimalism

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minimalism,

schools of contemporary art and music, with their origins in the 1960s, that have emphasized simplicity and objectivity.

Minimalism in the Visual Arts

Reacting against the formal excesses and raw emotionalism of abstract expressionismabstract expressionism,
movement of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the mid-1940s and attained singular prominence in American art in the following decade; also called action painting and the New York school.
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, the practitioners of minimal art (also sometimes called ABC art) strove to focus attention on the object as an object, reducing its historical and expressive content to the bare minimum. Many minimalist artists were sculptors concerned with reducing form to its utmost simplicity. They used flat surface colors, factory finishes, and industrial materials. The use of serial repetitions contributed to their goal. Artists such as Carl AndreAndre, Carl
, 1935–, American sculptor, b. Quincy, Mass. A student of Patrick Morgan and associate of Frank Stella, Andre produces sculptures of elemental form and abstract monumentality.
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, Sol LeWittLeWitt, Sol
, 1928–2007, American artist, b. Hartford, Conn. LeWitt, who came into prominence in the 1960s, termed his work conceptual art, emphasizing that the idea or concept that animates each work is its most important aspect.
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, Robert MorrisMorris, Robert,
1931–, American artist, b. Kansas City, Mo. He settled in New York City in 1960 and was allied in his early work with the simple, impersonal forms of minimalism, e.g., an untitled 1965 work consisting of four blocks of gray fiberglass.
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, Richard SerraSerra, Richard,
1939–, American sculptor, b. San Francisco; grad. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara (B.A., 1961), Yale (B.F.A., M.F.A., 1974). Many of his early works (1960s) are cast in rubber or lead.
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, Donald JuddJudd, Donald Clarence,
1928–94, American artist, b. Excelsior Springs, Mo. His sculpture, allied with the minimalist school of the late 1960s (see minimalism; modern art), has the appearance of industrial fabrication.
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, and Dan FlavinFlavin, Dan
, 1933–96, American sculptor, b. New York City. In the early 1960s, Flavin experimented with fluorescent lights, bending them into complex, angular shapes.
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 were associated with the movement. The exhibition "Primary Structures," held in New York in 1966, spotlighted works of this school. Minimalism gave rise to process art, land artland art
or earthworks,
art form developed in the late 1960s and early 70s by Robert Smithson, Robert Morris, Michael Heizer, and others, in which the artist employs the elements of nature in situ or rearranges the landscape with earthmoving equipment.
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, performance artperformance art,
multimedia art form originating in the 1970s in which performance is the dominant mode of expression. Perfomance art may incorporate such elements as instrumental or electronic music, song, dance, television, film, sculpture, spoken dialogue, and storytelling.
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, conceptual artconceptual art,
art movement that began in the 1960s and stresses the artist's concept rather than the art object itself. Growing out of minimalism, conceptual art turned the artist's thoughts and ideas themselves into the primary artistic medium, appealing to the spectator's
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, and installation art.

Minimalism in Music

In music, the minimalist movement was, like minimal art, a reaction against a then-current style, with composers rejecting many of the dry intellectual complexities and the emotional sterility of serial musicserial music,
the body of compositions whose fundamental syntactical reference is a particular ordering (called series or row) of the twelve pitch classes—C, C#, D, D#, E, F, F#, G, G#, A, A#, B—that constitute the equal-tempered scale.
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 and other modern compositional approaches. Generally, minimalist compositions tend to emphasize simplicity in melodic line and harmonic progression, to stress repetition and rhythmic patterns, and to reduce historical or expressive reference. The use of electronic instruments is common in minimalist music, as are influences from Asia and Africa. Among minimalist composers are the more prominent Philip GlassGlass, Philip,
1937–, American composer, b. Baltimore. Considered one of the most innovative of contemporary composers, he was a significant figure in the development of minimalism in music. Glass attended the Univ. of Chicago, Juilliard (M.A.
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, Steve ReichReich, Steve
(Stephen Michael Reich), 1936–, American composer, b. New York City. A well-known exponent of minimalism, he attended Cornell (B.A., 1957), Juilliard (1958–61), and Mills College (M.A., 1963), where he studied with Darius Milhaud and Luciano Berio.
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, Terry Riley, La Monte Young, and John AdamsAdams, John
(John Coolidge Adams), 1947–, American composer, b. Worcester, Mass. A clarinetist, he studied composition at Harvard (B.A. 1969, M.A. 1971). Often regarded as the most outstanding, technically adept, and influential composer of his generation, Adams has
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 and the less well-known Terry Jennings, Dennis Johnson, and Julius Eastman.

Bibliography

See K. Gann et al., Ashgate Research Companion to Minimalist and Postminimalist Music (2013).

minimalism

a type of music based on simple elements and avoiding elaboration or embellishment
www.nortexinfo.net/McDaniel/minimalist_music.htm
www.sbgmusic.com/html/teacher/reference/styles/minimal.html
References in periodicals archive ?
Toussaint is elaborating a poetics that addresses a capital issue in minimalist art.
Would you like to have some minimalist art in your house?
I'm drawn to minimalist art and to minimalism as an idea," Kivivirta explains.
The two lead actors shared the best actor award at last year's Cannes Film Festival, and certainly they perform extremely well in this minimalist art film, full of long, lingering silences and knowing artful glances.
Quasi photographic images like James Sherian's Untitled (a charcoal reworking of a newspaper photograph linked to a particularly gruesome murder case) recall the preoccupations of that time, whereas various others (Ansel Krut's Heartless Roach, for example) reflect the crude figurative style fashionable in the 1980s, or the influence of what now seems an academic tradition of conceptual and minimalist art.
Minimalist art is not a recognizable style like Impressionism, but rather an art movement.
And if that isn't romantic enough, Stratos is dimly lit, with cosy furnishings such as armchairs and sofas, and contemporary minimalist art around the tables.
This conflict began at the scale of the object and quickly escalated to the scale of the building, bringing the museum itself into the latent logic of Minimalist art and making not merely conceivable but crucial the question of whether architecture should ever be more than what you bump into when you back up to see a picture, a sculpture, or a car.
Lee Lozano's "Wave" paintings of the late 1960s represented an attempt to undermine the contemporaneous dominance of nonrepresentational and minimalist art by positing the individualistic attitude associated with abstraction as already cliched.
9 Hamilton (Matthew Porterfield) A tiny, minimalist art film from Baltimore that made it to New York and is astonishing in its simple beauty, amazing performances, and hypnotic pace.
Two earlier works vaguely echoed the drumroll of heavier industrial Minimalist art, such as that of Richard Serra, which titillates instead of calming the senses.
The gallery's central space was dominated by A Slowing of the Spectator's Eye, 2005, a fiberglass relief wall mimicking poured concrete; its gray tilted squares recalled both '70s architecture and some forms of later-modernist and minimalist art.