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(mĭsh`nə), in Judaism, codified collection of Oral Law—legal interpretations of portions of the biblical books of Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy and other legal material. Together with the Gemara, or Amoraic commentary on the Mishna, it comprises the TalmudTalmud
[Aramaic from Heb.,=learning], in Judaism, vast compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and commentaries, in contradistinction to the Scriptures or Written Laws. The Talmud is the accepted authority for Orthodox Jews everywhere.
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. Next to the Scriptures the Mishna is the basic textbook of Jewish life and thought, and is traditionally considered to be an integral part of the Torah revealed to Moses on Mount Sinai. The sifting and recording of the body of oral interpretations of biblical law was the work of the TannaimTannaim
[plural of Aramaic tanna,=one who studies or teaches], Jewish sages of the period from Hillel to the compilation of the Mishna. They functioned as both scholars and teachers, educating those in the synagogues as well as in the academies.
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, the final compilation being made during the rule of Judah ha-NasiJudah ha-Nasi
, c.135–c.220, Palestinian Jewish communal leader (tanna). He occupied the office of patriarch (nasi) which was reestablished by the Romans after 135.
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. The Mishna is divided into six Orders (Sedarim): Zeraim [seeds], laws pertaining to agriculture; Moed [seasons], laws concerning observation of the Sabbath and festivals; Nashim [women], laws regarding vows, marriage, and divorce; Nezikim [damages], laws concerning civil and criminal matters; Kodashim [holy things], laws regulating ritual slaughter, sacrifice, and holy objects; and Tohorot [purities], laws regarding ceremonial purity. Each Order is divided into tractates, which in turn are divided into chapters. These contain paragraphs called mishnayyot. The penultimate tractate of the fourth Order is called Avot or Pirke Avot [chapters of the fathers], and unlike much of the rest of the Mishna consists of general moral and religious sayings. In addition to those rulings accepted as law, the Mishna records contrary opinions and discussions among the rabbis.


See translation by H. Danby (1958); L. Ginzberg, Studies in the Origin of the Mishnah (1920); J. Neusner, A History of Mishnaic Law (1974) and Judaism: The Evidence of the Mishnah (1981).

References in periodicals archive ?
74) The earliest relatively complete printed Mishnah (Naples: J.
Commentary to the Mishnah, Ethics of the Fathers 1:8.
Briefly, the utterances of the tannaim (those who "teach") form the basis of the Oral Law or Mishnah which, once a strictly oral tradition, was codified by Rebi Yehudah Ha-Nasi (or simply Rebi) at the end of the tannaitic period.
120) In other instances, the Mishnah contains the words "they used to" during discussions of the methods of capital punishment,(121) again indicating that the discussions were by then hypothetical.
Ha-hay bi-vmei ha-Migra ha-Mishnah vie-ha-Talmud [The Fauna at the Times of the Bible, the Mishnah.
That determination, as we have seen, was supplied a century later by the Mishnah, rabbinic Judaism's first normative code.
First, Snyder reasonably skips the Mishnah and other early rabbinic literature as redacted too late, though containing early material.
He outlines their survival at Yavneh (Jamina); he correctly discounts the hypothesis of a synod to set the canon of "Writings"; and he uses the extensive scholarship of Jacob Neusner to illustrate their own reworking of past texts and symbols in the Mishnah.
The Mishnah expressly gives the baby's life equal status with the mother when the majority of the baby is born.
Messianic Jews relate to a stream of Judaism that preceded Rabbinic Judaism, which is generally acknowledged to have its origins with the redaction of the Mishnah, circa 200 C.
Let us try to re-create the climate or environment in which Jesus came of age by utilizing the Hebrew Bible and the second century Mishnah, the first section of the Talmud, which collects oral traditions going back to the time of Jesus.
Other literary classics--the Bible, Mishnah, Babylonian Talmud, Midrash Rabbah and Zohar--were rendered into English decades ago.