Mississippi Scheme

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Mississippi Scheme,

plan formulated by John LawLaw, John,
1671–1729, Scottish financier in France, b. Edinburgh. After killing a man in a duel (1694) he fled to Amsterdam, where he studied banking. Returning to Scotland (1700), he proposed to Parliament plans for trade and revenue reforms and published
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 for the colonization and commercial exploitation of the Mississippi valley and other French colonial areas. In 1717 the French merchant Antoine Crozat transferred his monopoly of commercial privileges in LouisianaLouisiana
, state in the S central United States. It is bounded by Mississippi, with the Mississippi River forming about half of the border (E), the Gulf of Mexico (S), Texas (W), and Arkansas (N). Facts and Figures

Area, 48,523 sq mi (125,675 sq km). Pop.
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 to Law, who, with the sanction of the French regent, Philippe II, duc d'Orléans, organized the Compagnie d'Occident. Its shares first depreciated in value but rose rapidly when Law, director of the new royal bank, promised to take over the stock at par at an early date.

In 1719 the company absorbed several other organizations for the development of the Indies, China, and Africa, and Law thus controlled French colonial trade. The consolidated company, renamed the Compagnie des Indes (but commonly known as the Mississippi Company), was given, among other privileges, the right of farming the taxes. It then assumed the state debt and finally was officially amalgamated (1720) with the royal bank. Public confidence was such that a wild orgy of speculation in its shares had set in. The speculation received a strong impetus from Law's advertising, which described Louisiana as a land full of mountains of gold and silver. One story told of a fabulous emerald rock on the Arkansas River, and an expedition promptly set out to find it.

Overexpansion of the company's activities, the almost complete lack of any real assets in the colonial areas, and the haste with which Law proceeded soon brought an end to his scheme. A few speculators sold their shares in time to make huge profits, but most were ruined when the "Mississippi Bubble" burst in Oct., 1720. In the governmental crisis that followed, Law's financial system was abolished, and he fled the country (Dec., 1720). Although a failure in its financial aspects, the Mississippi Scheme was responsible for the largest influx of settlers into Louisiana up to that time.

References in periodicals archive ?
At the height of Law's career, in January 1720, he was made France's comptroller general and the superintendent general of finance, in addition to being a large shareholder in the Mississippi Company.
Several things are important to note about the Mississippi Company and its shares at this point.
The Mississippi Company Might Have Been a "Bubble" .
Researchers who belong to the second school described above (bubbles happen) think that the rise and fall of the Mississippi Company was indeed a good example of a bubble.
But the Mississippi company declined to change the trademark and then suggested that the Arkansas Bad Boy "should be contemplating a change in its trademark," the lawsuit said.
The company is predominantly a Mississippi company, although it has, in recent years, expanded into the Florida panhandle, Tennessee and Texas.
This year, Mississippi Highway Patrol will be expanding their existing system by awarding EST a $210,000 order through EST's Reseller ADSi, a Mississippi company that provides Public Safety software nationwide.
It makes us an even stronger Mississippi company," said W.

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