Mitre, Bartolomé

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Mitre, Bartolomé

(bär'tōlōmā` mē`trā), 1821–1906, Argentine statesman, general, and author, president of the republic (1862–68). An opponent of Juan Manuel de RosasRosas, Juan Manuel de
, 1793–1877, Argentine dictator, governor of Buenos Aires prov. (1829–32, 1835–52). As a boy he served under Jacques de Liniers against the British invaders of the Rio de la Plata (1806–7).
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, he was forced into exile and had a colorful career as a soldier and journalist in Uruguay, Bolivia, Peru, and Chile. He returned to aid UrquizaUrquiza, Justo José de
, 1801–70, Argentine general and politician, president of the confederation (1854–60). As the caudillo of Entre Ríos prov., he helped sustain the power of Juan Manuel de Rosas.
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 in defeating Rosas (1852). A leader of the revolt of Buenos Aires against Urquiza's federal system, Mitre held important posts in the provincial government after Buenos Aires seceded from the confederation. He was defeated by Urquiza in the civil war of 1859, and Buenos Aires reentered the confederation. As governor after 1860, he again assumed leadership when fresh difficulties led to open war in 1861. At Pavón he won a victory for Buenos Aires; he then assumed national authority. In Oct., 1862, Mitre was elected president, and national political unity was finally achieved; a period of internal progress and reform began. He served for a time as commander of the allied forces of Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay in the war against Paraguay. His political views led to attacks by AlberdiAlberdi, Juan Bautista
, 1810–84, Argentine political philosopher, patriot, and diplomat. He opposed Juan Manuel de Rosas, and after 1838 he spent years of exile in Uruguay, Chile, and in Europe writing against Rosas.
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. In 1868, Mitre was succeeded as president by SarmientoSarmiento, Domingo Faustino
, 1811–88, Argentine statesman, educator, and author, president of the republic (1868–74). An opponent of Juan Manuel de Rosas, he spent years of exile in Chile, becoming known as a journalist and an educational reformer.
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, and although still a force in politics, he devoted himself chiefly to literary work. He founded La Nación (Buenos Aires), which became one of South America's leading newspapers. Mitre was known in his youth as a poet and in later years as a historian. His important historical works are Historia de Belgrano (1858–59, 4th ed. 1887) and Historia de San Martín y de la emancipación sudamericana (1877–88, tr. The Emancipation of South America, 1893).

Mitre, Bartolomé

 

Born June 26, 1821, in Buenos Aires; died there Jan. 19, 1906. Argentine statesman, soldier, historian, and writer.

Beginning in 1839, Mitre fought in the civil wars against J. M. de Rosas. He emigrated after the end of the military campaign and between 1846 and 1851 lived in Bolivia, Peru, and Chile and worked as a journalist. Upon his return to his homeland, Mitre was elected to the legislative assembly of Buenos Aires. An advocate of the centralization of the country’s administration, he urged national unification. In 1859, Mitre took command of the armed forces of Buenos Aires in the fight against the army of the Argentine Confederation. Mitre’s victory at Pa von on Sept. 14, 1861, led to the disintegration of the confederation and to the formation of a unified Argentine republic.

Mitre was president of Argentina from 1862 to 1868. He helped Great Britain strengthen its position in Argentina by granting concessions to British capital for the construction of railroads. Together with Brazil and Uruguay, he waged a predatory war against Paraguay from 1865 to 1870. Between 1868 and 1874 he was first a senator of Argentina and then ambassador to Paraguay and Brazil. He retired from political life in 1875. Mitre is the founder of liberal positivist Argentine historiography.

WORKS

Obras completas, vols. 1–12. Buenos Aires, 1938–49.
Ensayos historicos, 2nd ed. Buenos Aires, 1941.

REFERENCES

Ocherki istorii Argentiny. Moscow, 1961.
Levene, R. Mitre y los estudios historicos en la Argentina. Buenos Aires, 1944.