Mixed Forest

mixed forest

[′mikst ′fär·əst]
A forest consisting of two or more types of trees, with no more than 80% of the most common tree.

Mixed Forest


a forest consisting of coniferous and broad-leaved trees. Mixed forests are commonly found on the plains and in the low-mountain zones in humid temperate climatic regions of Eurasia and North America.

In Eurasia mixed forests are widespread in southern Scandinavia, the European USSR, the Far East, the Carpathians, the Caucasus, and the temperate mountain zone of Southeast Asia (above 3,500–3,800 m). The mountain forests of Southeast Asia are composed of yew, hemlock, fir, larch, spruce, linden, birch, and maple. A dense underbrush of mock orange, lilac, aralia, and rhododendron is also characteristic. Mixed forests cover a fairly large area in the European USSR. They contain spruce, oak, linden, maple, ash, elm, and apple; there is a distinct layer of shrub undergrowth, which is made up of filbert, honeysuckle, warty-bark euonymus, and viburnum. Broad grasses and ferns are dominant in the grass cover. Many varieties of trees and shrubs are found in Far Eastern mixed forests; they include Korean pine, Saian spruce, Khingan fir, Manchurian fir, Mongolian oak, Manchurian ash, large-leaved lime, and several hornbeam species. Lianas, including Amur grape and magnolia vine, entwine the trunks of the trees and shrubs.

In North America mixed forests occur in Appalachia, California, and the Great Lakes region and are distinguished by a great number of species. The mixed forests of Appalachia consist of sugar maple, balsam fir, American beech, American hornbeam, and many other species. California forests include sequoia, western hemlock, Douglas fir and other fir species, western yellow pine, and swamp white oak. Forests in the Great Lakes region contain a number of hardwood species, white pine, spruce (in the northern part), beech, maple, birch, hemlock, and balsam fir.

Mixed forests are an ancient formation that once was more widely distributed. Such forests contain many valuable trees.


Il’inskii, A. P. Rastitel’nost’ zemnogo shara. Moscow-Leningrad, 1937.
Rastitel’nyi pokrov SSSR: Poiasnitel’nyi tekst k “Geobotanicheskoi karte SSSR, “masshtab 1:4,000,000, vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1956.
Walter, H. Rastitel’nost’ zemnogo shara, vol. 2. Moscow, 1974. (Translated from German.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Located at the border of Maine and Quebec, this property, subject to forest management, is characterized by a mixed forest cover (coniferous and hardwood) and is in full development.
After we crossed a gravel road to continue on along Dan's Trail, the mixed forest was sidelined with lush blackberry bushes.
FIGURE 2: Proportion of zoochoric species between the Ombrophilous Mixed Forest surveys: a) based on the species proportion (richness); b) based on the individual proportion (abundance).
The Northern Great Lakes region contains diverse mixed forest types, including aspen; northern hardwoods of sugar maple, beech, and birch; and white, red and jack pine.
Legrand, is a tree considered to be almost exclusive to Ombrophilous Mixed Forest (FOM) with humid soils, occurring isolated or in groups, and described as rare by LEGRAND & KLEIN (1977).
The studied zones were clearly located in three categories of disturbance, including: Primary Forest (PF), with relatively little disturbance; Mixed Forest (MF); and Reforested Forest (RF).
Moreover, the wasteland variable contributed 22% in the n = 16 data set and the mixed forest variable 21% in the n = 14 data set.
The Bruce Peninsula contains a mix of land cover types, with the dominant cover being coniferous forest, mixed forest, fields, and deciduous forest (Table 1).
Mixed forest was the most used land cover type at both the location and 5 ha scales (35.
The study site is covered by mixed forest stands dominated by 185-year-old pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), 180-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and 135-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies) (each accounting for approximately 25 % by tree volume) with birches (Betula pendula and B.